Chapter 2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL

Table of Contents

2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows
2.3.4 MySQL Notifier
2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package
2.3.6 MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard
2.3.7 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.8 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.9 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.3.10 Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.4 Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages
2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers
2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.9 Installing MySQL from Source
2.9.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.9.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.9.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.9.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.9.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.10.2 Starting the Server
2.10.3 Testing the Server
2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.11 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.11.1 Upgrading MySQL
2.11.2 Downgrading MySQL
2.11.3 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.4 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12 Perl Installation Notes
2.12.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.12.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.12.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL. A summary of the procedure follows and later sections provide the details. If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than install MySQL for the first time, see Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading.

If you are interested in migrating to MySQL from another database system, see Section A.8, “MySQL 5.5 FAQ: Migration”, which contains answers to some common questions concerning migration issues.

If you are migrating from MySQL Enterprise Edition to MySQL Community Server, see Section 2.11.2.2, “Downgrading from MySQL Enterprise Edition to MySQL Community Server”.

Installation of MySQL generally follows the steps outlined here:

  1. Determine whether MySQL runs and is supported on your platform.

    Please note that not all platforms are equally suitable for running MySQL, and that not all platforms on which MySQL is known to run are officially supported by Oracle Corporation. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL Web site.

  2. Choose which distribution to install.

    Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. Oracle also provides access to the MySQL source code for those who want to see recent developments and test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see Section 2.1.1, “Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install”.

  3. Download the distribution that you want to install.

    For instructions, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. To verify the integrity of the distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG”.

  4. Install the distribution.

    To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

    To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  5. Perform any necessary postinstallation setup.

    After installing MySQL, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” for information about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. Also refer to the information provided in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”. This section describes how to secure the initial MySQL user accounts, which have no passwords until you assign passwords. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.

  6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See Section 2.12, “Perl Installation Notes”.

Instructions for installing MySQL on different platforms and environments is available on a platform by platform basis:

2.1 General Installation Guidance

The immediately following sections contain the information necessary to choose, download, and verify your distribution. The instructions in later sections of the chapter describe how to install the distribution that you choose. For binary distributions, see the instructions at Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries” or the corresponding section for your platform if available. To build MySQL from source, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install

MySQL is available on a number of operating systems and platforms. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL Web site.

When preparing to install MySQL, decide which version and distribution format (binary or source) to use.

First, decide whether to install a development release or a General Availability (GA) release. Development releases have the newest features, but are not recommended for production use. GA releases, also called production or stable releases, are meant for production use. We recommend using the most recent GA release.

The naming scheme in MySQL 5.5 uses release names that consist of three numbers and an optional suffix; for example, mysql-5.5.1-m2. The numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:

  • The first number (5) is the major version number.

  • The second number (5) is the minor version number. Taken together, the major and minor numbers constitute the release series number. The series number describes the stable feature set.

  • The third number (1) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new bugfix release. In most cases, the most recent version within a series is the best choice.

Release names can also include a suffix to indicate the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

  • mN (for example, m1, m2, m3, ...) indicates a milestone number. MySQL development uses a milestone model, in which each milestone introduces a small subset of thoroughly tested features. Following the releases for one milestone, development proceeds with another small number of releases that focuses on the next set of features. From one milestone to the next, feature interfaces may change or features may even be removed, based on feedback provided by community members who try these earily releases. Features within milestone releases may be considered to be of pre-production quality.

  • rc indicates a Release Candidate (RC). Release candidates are believed to be stable, having passed all of MySQL's internal testing. New features may still be introduced in RC releases, but the focus shifts to fixing bugs to stabilize features introduced earlier within the series.

  • Absence of a suffix indicates a General Availability (GA) or Production release. GA releases are stable, having successfully passed through the earlier release stages, and are believed to be reliable, free of serious bugs, and suitable for use in production systems.

Development within a series begins with milestone releases, followed by RC releases, and finally reaches GA status releases.

After choosing which MySQL version to install, decide which distribution format to install for your operating system. For most use cases, a binary distribution is the right choice. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM packages for Linux or DMG packages for OS X. Distributions are also available in more generic formats such as Zip archives or compressed tar files. On Windows, you can use the MySQL Installer to install a binary distribution.

Under some circumstances, it may be preferable to install MySQL from a source distribution:

  • You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions are ready to run at any installation location, but you might require even more flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.

  • You want to configure mysqld with features that might not be included in the standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options used to ensure feature availability:

    For additional information, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

  • You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard binary distributions. For example, distributions normally are compiled with support for all character sets. If you want a smaller MySQL server, you can recompile it with support for only the character sets you need.

  • You want to read or modify the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this purpose, obtain a source distribution.

  • Source distributions contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.

2.1.2 How to Get MySQL

Check our downloads page at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. You can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

To obtain the latest development source, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After downloading the MySQL package that suits your needs and before attempting to install it, make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. There are three means of integrity checking:

  • MD5 checksums

  • Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard

  • For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site.

2.1.3.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify against the package that you downloaded. The correct MD5 checksum is listed on the downloads page for each MySQL product, and you will compare it against the MD5 checksum of the file (product) that you download.

Each operating system and setup offers its own version of tools for checking the MD5 checksum. Typically the command is named md5sum, or it may be named md5, and some operating systems do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can also download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/. winMd5Sum is a graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum. Our Microsoft Windows examples will assume the name md5.exe.

Linux and Microsoft Windows examples:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-5.5.58-linux-i686.tar.gz
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-standard-5.5.58-linux-i686.tar.gz
shell> md5.exe mysql-installer-community-5.5.58.msi
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-installer-community-5.5.58.msi

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

Note

Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example, the .zip, .tar.gz, or .msi file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive. In other words, verify the file before extracting its contents.

2.1.3.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. Otherwise, see http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can download from http://pgp.mit.edu/. The key that you want to obtain is named mysql-build@oss.oracle.com. Alternatively, you can copy and paste the key directly from the following text:

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.4.5 (GNU/Linux)

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roUTAKClYAhZuX2nUNwH4vlEJQHDqYa5yQ==
=HfUN
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring, use gpg --import. For example, if you have saved the key in a file named mysql_pubkey.asc, the import command looks like this:

shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
gpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering
<mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found

You can also download the key from the public keyserver using the public key id, 5072E1F5:

shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5
gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
1 new user ID
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
53 new signatures
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:           new user IDs: 1
gpg:         new signatures: 53

If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the key directly:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

If you experience problems or require RPM specific information, see Section 2.1.3.4, “Signature Checking Using RPM”.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an .asc extension, as shown by the examples in the following table.

Table 2.1 MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files

File TypeFile Name
Distribution filemysql-standard-5.5.58-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature filemysql-standard-5.5.58-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good signature" similar to:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.5.58-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"

The Good signature message indicates that the file signature is valid, when compared to the signature listed on our site. But you might also see warnings, like so:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.5.58-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration. Here are explanations for these warnings:

  • gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found: This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file signatures.

  • WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.: This refers to your level of trust in your belief that you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision. Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person, but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you. Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.

See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.

2.1.3.3 Signature Checking Using Gpg4win for Windows

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section describes how to verify MySQL downloads using GPG. That guide also applies to Microsoft Windows, but another option is to use a GUI tool like Gpg4win. You may use a different tool but our examples are based on Gpg4win, and utilize its bundled Kleopatra GUI.

Download and install Gpg4win, and then load Kleopatra. The dialog should look similar to:

Figure 2.1 Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

Next, add the MySQL Release Engineering certificate. Do this by clicking File, Lookup Certificates on Server. Type "Mysql Release Engineering" into the search box and press Search.

Figure 2.2 Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

Select the "MySQL Release Engineering" certificate. The Fingerprint and Key-ID must be "5072E1F5", or choose Details... to confirm the certificate is valid. Now, import it by clicking Import. An import dialog will be displayed, choose Okay, and this certificate will now be listed under the Imported Certificates tab.

Next, configure the trust level for our certificate. Select our certificate, then from the main menu select Certificates, Change Owner Trust.... We suggest choosing I believe checks are very accurate for our certificate, as otherwise you might not be able to verify our signature. Select I believe checks are very accurate and then press OK.

Figure 2.3 Changing the Trust level

Changing the Trust level

Next, verify the downloaded MySQL package file. This requires files for both the packaged file, and the signature. The signature file must have the same name as the packaged file but with an appended .asc extension, as shown by the example in the following table. The signature is linked to on the downloads page for each MySQL product. You must create the .asc file with this signature.

Table 2.2 MySQL Package and Signature Files for MySQL Installer for Microsoft Windows

File TypeFile Name
Distribution filemysql-installer-community-5.5.58.msi
Signature filemysql-installer-community-5.5.58.msi.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file. Either drag and drop the signature (.asc) file into Kleopatra, or load the dialog from File, Decrypt/Verify Files..., and then choose either the .msi or .asc file.

Figure 2.4 The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

Click Decrypt/Verify to check the file. The two most common results will look like the following, and although the yellow warning looks problematic, the following means that the file check passed with success. You may now run this installer.

Figure 2.5 The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

Seeing a red "The signature is bad" error means the file is invalid. Do not execute the MSI file if you see this error.

Figure 2.6 The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section explains why you probably don't see a green Good signature result.

2.1.3.4 Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-5.5.58-0.glibc23.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-5.5.58-0.glibc23.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
Note

If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, RPM maintains a separate keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key, then use rpm --import to import the key. For example:

shell> gpg --export -a 5072e1f5 > 5072e1f5.asc
shell> rpm --import 5072e1f5.asc

Alternatively, rpm also supports loading the key directly from a URL, and you can use this manual page:

shell> rpm --import http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/checking-gpg-signature.html

If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG”.

2.1.4 Installation Layouts

The installation layout differs for different installation types (for example, native packages, binary tarballs, and source tarballs), which can lead to confusion when managing different systems or using different installation sources. The individual layouts are given in the corresponding installation type or platform chapter, as described following. Note that the layout of installations from vendors other than Oracle may differ from these layouts.

2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics

In some cases, the compiler used to build MySQL affects the features available for use. The notes in this section apply for binary distributions provided by Oracle Corporation or that you compile yourself from source.

icc (Intel C++ Compiler) Builds

A server built with icc has these characteristics:

  • SSL support is not included.

2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries

Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include generic binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, and binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.

This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution. For other platform-specific package formats, see the other platform-specific sections. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows”.

To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the form mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz, where VERSION is a number (for example, 5.5.58), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

Warning

If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management system, such as yum or apt-get, you may experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL installation has been removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check for configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql directory and delete them.

Warning

MySQL has a dependency on the libaio library. Data directory initialization and subsequent server startup steps will fail if this library is not installed locally. If necessary, install it using the appropriate package manager. For example, on Yum-based systems:

shell> yum search libaio  # search for info
shell> yum install libaio # install library

Or, on APT-based systems:

shell> apt-cache search libaio # search for info
shell> apt-get install libaio1 # install library

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.6, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

On Unix, to install a compressed tar file binary distribution, unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically /usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.3 MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package

DirectoryContents of Directory
bin, scriptsmysqld server, client and utility programs
dataLog files, databases
docsMySQL manual in Info format
manUnix manual pages
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
sql-benchBenchmarks

Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug. To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. See Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the command sequence looks like this:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
Note

This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (Solaris) command.

Note

The procedure does not assign passwords to MySQL accounts. To do so, use the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.

Create a mysql User and Group

If your system does not already have a user and group to use for running mysqld, you may need to create one. The following commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix, or they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup.

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
Note

Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r and -s /bin/false options to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit these options if your useradd does not support them.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here unpacks the distribution under /usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in /usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the installation as root.

shell> cd /usr/local

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.

Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. Then create a symbolic link to that directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS. The ln command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This enables you to refer more easily to the installation directory as /usr/local/mysql.

To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution, your system must have GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:

shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting distribution ownership and access permissions, initializing the data directory, starting the MySQL server, and setting up the configuration file. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows

Important

MySQL Community 5.5 Server requires the Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Package to run on Windows platforms. Users should make sure the package has been installed on the system before installing the server. The package is available at the Microsoft Download Center.

MySQL is available for Microsoft Windows, for both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. For supported Windows platform information, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

There are different methods to install MySQL on Microsoft Windows.

MySQL Installer Method

The simplest and recommended method is to download MySQL Installer (for Windows) and let it install and configure all of the MySQL products on your system. Here is how:

  1. Download MySQL Installer from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ and execute it.

    Note

    Unlike the standard MySQL Installer, the smaller "web-community" version does not bundle any MySQL applications but it will download the MySQL products you choose to install.

  2. Choose the appropriate Setup Type for your system. Typically you will choose Developer Default to install MySQL server and other MySQL tools related to MySQL development, helpful tools like MySQL Workbench. Or, choose the Custom setup type to manually select your desired MySQL products.

    Note

    Multiple versions of MySQL server can exist on a single system. You can choose one or multiple versions.

  3. Complete the installation process by following the MySQL Installation wizard's instructions. This will install several MySQL products and start the MySQL server.

MySQL is now installed. If you configured MySQL as a service, then Windows will automatically start MySQL server every time you restart your system.

Note

You probably also installed other helpful MySQL products like MySQL Workbench and MySQL Notifier on your system. Consider loading Chapter 26, MySQL Workbench to check your new MySQL server connection, and Section 2.3.4, “MySQL Notifier” to view the connection's status. By default, these two programs automatically start after installing MySQL.

This process also installs the MySQL Installer application on your system, and later you can use MySQL Installer to upgrade or reconfigure your MySQL products.

Additional Installation Information

It is possible to run MySQL as a standard application or as a Windows service. By using a service, you can monitor and control the operation of the server through the standard Windows service management tools. For more information, see Section 2.3.7.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

Generally, you should install MySQL on Windows using an account that has administrator rights. Otherwise, you may encounter problems with certain operations such as editing the PATH environment variable or accessing the Service Control Manager. Once installed, MySQL does not need to be executed using a user with Administrator privileges.

For a list of limitations on the use of MySQL on the Windows platform, see Section C.10.6, “Windows Platform Limitations”.

In addition to the MySQL Server package, you may need or want additional components to use MySQL with your application or development environment. These include, but are not limited to:

  • To connect to the MySQL server using ODBC, you must have a Connector/ODBC driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/ODBC Developer Guide.

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/ODBC for you.

  • To use MySQL server with .NET applications, you must have the Connector/Net driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/Net Developer Guide.

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure MySQL Connector/Net for you.

MySQL distributions for Windows can be downloaded from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL for Windows is available in several distribution formats, detailed here. Generally speaking, you should use MySQL Installer. It contains more features and MySQL products than the older MSI, is simpler to use than the Zip file, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running. MySQL Installer automatically installs MySQL Server and additional MySQL products, creates an options file, starts the server, and enables you to create default user accounts. For more information on choosing a package, see Section 2.3.2, “Choosing An Installation Package”.

  • Binary installer distributions. There are two different installable distributions that come packaged as a Microsoft Windows Installer (MSI) package that you can install manually or automatically on your systems. The preferred MySQL Installer package includes MySQL Server and additional MySQL products including MySQL Workbench, MySQL Notifier, and MySQL for Excel. MySQL Installer can also be used to upgrade these product in the future. The older MSI package contains all the files you need to install and configure MySQL server, but no additional components.

    For instructions on installing MySQL using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”.

  • The standard binary distribution (packaged as a Zip file) contains all of the necessary files that you unpack into your chosen location. This package contains all of the files in the full Windows MSI Installer package, but does not include an installation program.

    For instructions on installing MySQL using the Zip file, see Section 2.3.7, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

  • The source distribution format contains all the code and support files for building the executables using the Visual Studio compiler system.

    For instructions on building MySQL from source on Windows, see Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

MySQL on Windows considerations:

  • Large Table Support

    If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer file system. Do not forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See Section 13.1.17, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

  • MySQL and Virus Checking Software

    Virus-scanning software such as Norton/Symantec Anti-Virus on directories containing MySQL data and temporary tables can cause issues, both in terms of the performance of MySQL and the virus-scanning software misidentifying the contents of the files as containing spam. This is due to the fingerprinting mechanism used by the virus-scanning software, and the way in which MySQL rapidly updates different files, which may be identified as a potential security risk.

    After installing MySQL Server, it is recommended that you disable virus scanning on the main directory (datadir) used to store your MySQL table data. There is usually a system built into the virus-scanning software to enable specific directories to be ignored.

    In addition, by default, MySQL creates temporary files in the standard Windows temporary directory. To prevent the temporary files also being scanned, configure a separate temporary directory for MySQL temporary files and add this directory to the virus scanning exclusion list. To do this, add a configuration option for the tmpdir parameter to your my.ini configuration file. For more information, see Section 2.3.7.2, “Creating an Option File”.

2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows

For MySQL 5.5 on Windows, the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5. Some Windows users prefer to install in C:\mysql, the directory that formerly was used as the default. However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the same.

All of the files are located within this parent directory, using the structure shown in the following table.

Table 2.4 Default MySQL Installation Layout for Microsoft Windows

DirectoryContents of DirectoryNotes
bin, scriptsmysqld server, client and utility programs 
%ALLUSERSPROFILE%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\Log files, databases (Windows XP, Windows Server 2003)The Windows system variable %ALLUSERSPROFILE% defaults to C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data
%PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\Log files, databases (Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and newer)The Windows system variable %PROGRAMDATA% defaults to C:\ProgramData
examplesExample programs and scripts 
includeInclude (header) files 
libLibraries 
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation 

If you install MySQL using a Windows MSI package, this package creates and sets up the data directory that the installed server will use, but as of MySQL 5.5.5, it also creates a pristine template data directory named data under the installation directory. This directory can be useful when the machine will be used to run multiple instances of MySQL: After an installation has been performed using an MSI package, the template data directory can be copied to set up additional MySQL instances. See Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

2.3.2 Choosing An Installation Package

For MySQL 5.5, there are multiple installation package formats to choose from when installing MySQL on Windows.

Note

MySQL Installer and the "Complete Package" methods for installing MySQL are similar, but different. The MySQL Installer is the newer and more advanced option, and it includes all functionality found within the "Complete Package."

Note

Program Database (PDB) files (with file name extension pdb) provide information for debugging your MySQL installation in the event of a problem. These files are included in ZIP Archive distributions (but not MSI distributions) of MySQL.

  • MySQL Installer: This package has a file name similar to mysql-installer-community-5.5.58.0.msi or mysql-installer-commercial-5.5.58.0.msi, and utilizes MSIs to automatically install MySQL server and other products. It will download and apply updates to itself, and for each of the installed products. It also configures the additional non-server products.

    The installed products are configurable, and this includes: documentation with samples and examples, connectors (such as C, C++, J, NET, and ODBC), MySQL Workbench, MySQL Notifier, MySQL for Excel, and the MySQL Server with its components.

    MySQL Installer will run on all Windows platforms that are supported by MySQL (see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html).

    Note

    Because MySQL Installer is not a native component of Microsoft Windows and depends on .NET, it will not work on minimal installation options like the "Server Core" version of Windows Server 2008.

    For instructions on installing MySQL using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”.

  • The Complete Package: This package has a file name similar to mysql-5.5.58-win32.msi or mysql-5.5.58-winx64.zip, and contains all files needed for a complete Windows installation, including the Configuration Wizard. This package includes optional components such as the embedded server and benchmark suite.

  • The Noinstall Archive: This package has a file name similar to mysql-5.5.58-win32.zip or mysql-5.5.58-winx64.zip, and contains all the files found in the Complete install package, with the exception of the GUI. It also contains PDB files. This package does not include an automated installer, and must be manually installed and configured.

MySQL Installer is recommended for most users.

Your choice of install package affects the installation process you must follow. If you choose to use MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”. If you choose to install a standard MSI package, see Section 2.3.5, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package”. If you choose to install a Noinstall archive, see Section 2.3.7, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows

MySQL Installer is a standalone application designed to ease the complexity of installing and managing MySQL products that run on Microsoft Windows. It supports the following MySQL products:

  • MySQL Servers

    A single MySQL Installer instance can install and manage multiple MySQL server versions. For example, a single MySQL Installer instance can install (and update) versions 5.6, 5.7, and 8.0 on the same host. A host cannot have both community and commercial editions of MySQL server installed.

  • MySQL Applications

    MySQL Workbench, MySQL Shell, MySQL Router, MySQL for Visual Studio, MySQL for Excel, MySQL Notifier, and MySQL Utilities.

  • MySQL Connectors

    MySQL Connector/Net, MySQL Connector/Python, Connector/ODBC, MySQL Connector/J, Connector/C, and Connector/C++.

  • Documentation and Samples

    MySQL Reference Manuals (by version) in PDF format and MySQL database samples (by version).

MySQL Installer Community Edition

Download this edition from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ to install the community version of all MySQL products for Windows. Select one of the following MySQL Installer package options:

  • Web: Contains MySQL Installer and configuration files only. The web package downloads only the MySQL products you select to install, but it requires an internet connection for each download. The size of this file is approximately 2 MB; the name of the file has the form mysql-installer-community-web-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL server version number such as 5.7 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

  • Full: Bundles all of the MySQL products for Windows (including the MySQL server). The file size is over 300 MB, and its name has the form mysql-installer-community-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 5.7 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

MySQL Installer Commercial Edition

Download this edition from https://edelivery.oracle.com/ to install the commercial edition of all MySQL products for Windows. The Commercial Edition includes all of the products in the Community Edition and also includes the following products:

  • Workbench SE/EE

  • MySQL Enterprise Backup

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall

This edition integrates with your My Oracle Support (MOS) account. For knowledge-base content and patches, see My Oracle Support.

2.3.3.1 MySQL Installer Initial Setup

When you download MySQL Installer for the first time, a setup wizard guides you through the initial installation of MySQL products. As the following figure shows, the initial setup is a one-time activity in the overall process. MySQL Installer detects existing MySQL products installed on the host during its initial setup and adds them to the list of products to be managed.

Figure 2.7 MySQL Installer Process Overview

MySQL Installer process overview

MySQL Installer extracts configuration files (described later) to the hard drive of the host during the initial setup. Although MySQL Installer is a 32-bit application, it can install both 32-bit and 64-bit binaries.

The initial setup adds a link to the Start menu under the MySQL group. Click Start, All Programs, MySQL, MySQL Installer to open MySQL Installer.

MySQL Installer Licensing and Support Authentication

MySQL Installer requires you to accept the license agreement before it will install new MySQL packages. After you accept the terms of the agreement, you can add, update, reconfigure, and remove all of the products and features provided by the MySQL Installer edition you downloaded.

For the commercial edition, entering your My Oracle Support (MOS) credentials is optional when installing bundled MySQL products, but your credentials are required when choosing unbundled MySQL products that MySQL Installer must download. An unbundled product is any MSI file that you download using MySQL Installer after the initial setup. Your credentials must match the user name and password that you have registered with Oracle for access to the support site.

Choosing a Setup Type

During the initial setup, you are prompted to select the MySQL products to be installed on the host. One alternative is to use a predetermined setup type that matches your setup requirements. Choosing one of the following setup types determines the initial installation only and does not limit your ability to install or update MySQL products for Windows later:

  • Developer Default: Install the following products that compliment application development with MySQL:

  • Server only: Only install the MySQL server. This setup type installs the general availability (GA) or development release server that you selected when you downloaded MySQL Installer. It uses the default installation and data paths.

  • Client only: Only install the most recent MySQL applications and MySQL connectors. This setup type is similar to the Developer Default type, except that it does not include MySQL server or the client programs typically bundled with the server, such as mysql or mysqladmin.

  • Full: Install all available MySQL products.

  • Custom The custom setup type enables you to filter and select individual MySQL products from the MySQL Installer catalog.

    Use the Custom setup type to install:

    • A product or product version that is not available from the usual download locations. The catalog contains all product releases, including the other releases between pre-release (or development) and GA.

    • An instance of MySQL server using an alternative installation path, data path, or both. For instructions on how to adjust the paths, see Section 2.3.3.2.3, “Setting Alternative Server Paths”.

    • Two or more MySQL server versions on the same host at the same time (for example, 5.6, 5.7, and 8.0).

    • A specific combination of products and features not offered as a predetermine setup type. For example, you can install a single product, such as MySQL Workbench, instead of installing all client applications for Windows.

Path Conflicts

When the default installation or data folder (required by MySQL server) for a product to be installed already exists on the host, the wizard displays the Path Conflict step to identify each conflict and enable you to take action to avoid having files in the existing folder overwritten by the new installation. You see this step in the initial setup only when MySQL Installer detects a conflict.

To resolve the path conflict, do one of the following:

  • Select a product from the list to display the conflict options. A warning symbol indicates which path is in conflict. Use the browse button to choose a new path and then click Next.

  • Click Back to choose a different setup type or product version, if applicable. The Custom setup type enables you to select individual product versions.

  • Click Next to ignore the conflict and overwrite files in the existing folder.

  • Delete the existing product. Click Cancel to stop the initial setup and close MySQL Installer. Open MySQL Installer again from the Start menu and delete the installed product from the host using the Delete operation from the dashboard.

Check Requirements

MySQL Installer uses entries in the package-rules.xml file to determine whether the prerequisite software for each product is installed on the host. When the requirements check fails, MySQL Installer displays the Check Requirements step to help you update the host. The following figure identifies and describes the key areas of this step.

Figure 2.8 Check Requirements

MySQL Installer check-requirements screen before any requirements are downloaded and installed.

Description of Check Requirements Elements

  1. Shows the current step in the initial setup. Steps in this list may change slightly depending on the products already installed on the host, the availability of prerequisite software, and the products to be installed on the host.

  2. Lists all pending installation requirements by product and indicates the status as follows:

    • A blank space in the Status column means that MySQL Installer can attempt to download and install the required software for you.

    • The word Manual in the Status column means that you must satisfy the requirement manually. Select each product in the list to see its requirement details.

  3. Describes the requirement in detail to assist you with each manual resolution. When possible, a download URL is provided. After you download and install the required software, click Check to verify that the requirement has been met.

  4. Provides the following set operations to proceed:

    • Back – Return to the previous step. This action enables you to select a different the setup type.

    • Execute – Have MySQL Installer attempt to download and install the required software for all items without a manual status. Manual requirements are resolved by you and verified with the Check button.

    • Next – Do not execute the request to apply the requirements automatically and proceed to the installation without including the products that fail the check requirements step.

    • Cancel – Stop the installation of MySQL products. Because MySQL Installer is already installed, the initial setup begins again when you open MySQL Installer from the Start menu and click Add from the dashboard. For a description of the available management operations, see Product Catalog.

MySQL Installer Configuration Files

All MySQL Installer files are located within the C:\Program Files (x86) and C:\ProgramData folders. The following table describes the files and folders that define MySQL Installer as a standalone application.

Note

Installed MySQL products are neither altered nor removed when you update or uninstall MySQL Installer.

Table 2.5 MySQL Installer Configuration Files

File or FolderDescriptionFolder Hierarchy
MySQL Installer for WindowsThis folder contains all of the files needed to run MySQL Installer and MySQLInstallerConsole.exe, a command-line program with similar functionality.C:\Program Files (x86)
TemplatesThe Templates folder has one file for each version of MySQL server. Template files contain keys and formulas to calculate some values dynamically.C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
package-rules.xml

This file contains the prerequisites for every product to be installed.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
produts.xml

The products file (or product catalog) contains a list of all products available for download.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
Product Cache

The Product Cache folder contains all standalone MSI files bundled with the full package or downloaded afterward.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows

2.3.3.2 Installation Workflow

MySQL Installer provides a wizard-like tool to install and configure new MySQL products for Windows. Unlike the initial setup, which runs only once, MySQL Installer invokes the wizard each time you download or install a new product. For first-time installations, the steps of the initial setup proceed directly into the steps of the installation.

Note

Full permissions are granted to the user executing MySQL Installer to all generated files, such as my.ini. This does not apply to files and directories for specific products, such as the MySQL server data directory in %ProgramData% that is owned by SYSTEM.

Products installed and configured on a host follow a general pattern that might require your input during the various steps. MySQL Installer loads all selected products together using the following workflow:

  • Product download. If you installed the full (not web) MySQL Installer package, all MSI files were loaded to the Product Cache folder during the initial setup and are not downloaded again. Otherwise, the status of each product changes from Downloading to Downloaded.

  • Product installation. The status of each product in the list changes from Ready to Install to Installing to Complete. During the process, click Show Details to view the installation actions.

    If you cancel the installation at this point, the products are installed, but the server (if installed) is not yet configured. To restart the server configuration, open MySQL Installer from the Start menu and click the Reconfigure link next to the appropriate server in the dashboard.

  • Product configuration. This step applies to MySQL server and samples in most cases. The status for each item in the list should indicate, Ready to Configure. Click Next to begin the step-by-step configuration of all items in the list.

    The configuration options presented during this step depend on which version of the database you selected to install. After the installation completes, you can reconfigure MySQL server from the MySQL Installer dashboard.

  • Installation compete. This step finalizes the installation and enables you to start some applications when the installation finishes.

2.3.3.2.1 InnoDB Cluster Sandbox Test Setup

You have two options to implement a high-availability solution when you install MySQL Server 5.7.17 or higher using MySQL Installer:

  • Standalone MySQL Server / Classic MySQL Replication (default)

    Select this option to begin the initial configuration of a standalone MySQL server. You can configure multiple servers with classic MySQL Replication manually or use MySQL Shell 1.0.9 or higher to configure a production InnoDB cluster.

    For a description of the server configuration options that apply to a standalone MySQL server on Windows, see Section 2.3.3.2.2, “Server Configuration”.

  • InnoDB Cluster Sandbox Test Setup (for testing only)

    Select this option to create and configure InnoDB cluster sandbox instances locally for testing. You can configure an InnoDB cluster sandbox to have three, five, seven, or nine MySQL server instances. Use the Reconfigure quick action in the MySQL Installer toolbar to adjust the number of instances in the InnoDB cluster after the configuration has finished.

    Figure 2.9 InnoDB Cluster Sandbox Test Setup

    MySQL Installer options for an InnoDB cluster sandbox test setup.

The InnoDB cluster sandbox, named sandboxCluster by default, is available on selected ports. After the configuration executes, click the Summary tab to view the specific ports that apply to your cluster.

You can use MySQL Installer to install MySQL Shell 1.0.9, if it is not installed. MySQL Shell enables you to manage the sandbox instances. To connect with the MySQL Shell on port 3310, execute the following command:

shell> mysqlsh root@localhost:3310

MySQL Installer also provides a wizard for configuring MySQL Router to connect to the test InnoDB cluster that was created in this step. For configuration details, see MySQL Router Configuration. To learn more about MySQL Router operations, see Routing for MySQL InnoDB cluster.

2.3.3.2.2 Server Configuration

MySQL Installer handles the initial configuration of the MySQL server. For example:

  • It creates the configuration file (my.ini) that is used to configure the MySQL server. The values written to this file are influenced by choices you make during the installation process.

    Note

    Some definitions are host dependent. For example, query_cache is enabled if the host has fewer than three cores.

  • By default, a Windows service for the MySQL server is added.

  • Provides default installation and data paths for MySQL server. For instructions on how to change the default paths, see Section 2.3.3.2.3, “Setting Alternative Server Paths”.

  • It can optionally create MySQL server user accounts with configurable permissions based on general roles, such as DB Administrator, DB Designer, and Backup Admin. It optionally creates a Windows user named MysqlSys with limited privileges, which would then run the MySQL Server.

    User accounts may also be added and configured in MySQL Workbench.

  • Checking Show Advanced Options allows additional Logging Options to be set. This includes defining custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

During the configuration process, click Next to proceed to the next step or Back to return to the previous step. Click Execute at the final step to apply the server configuration.

The sections that follow describe the server configuration options that apply to MySQL server on Windows. The server version you installed will determine which steps and options you can configure.

Type and Networking
  • Server Configuration Type

    Choose the MySQL server configuration type that describes your setup. This setting defines the amount of system resources (memory) that will be assigned to your MySQL server instance.

    • Development: A machine that will host many other applications, and typically this is your personal workstation. This option configures MySQL to use the least amount of memory.

    • Server: Several other applications will be running on this machine, such as a web server. This option configures MySQL to use a medium amount of memory.

    • Dedicated: A machine that is dedicated to running the MySQL server. Because no other major applications will run on this server, such as a web server, this option configures MySQL to use the majority of available memory.

  • Connectivity

    Connectivity options control how the connection to MySQL is made. Options include:

    • TCP/IP: You may enable TCP/IP Networking here as otherwise only local host connections are allowed. Also define the Port Number and whether to open the firewall port for network access. If the port number is in use already, you will see the information icon ( ) next to the default value and Next is disabled until you provide a new port number.

    • Named Pipe: Enable and define the pipe name, similar to using the --enable-named-pipe option.

    • Shared Memory: Enable and then define the memory name, similar to using the --shared-memory option.

  • Advanced Configuration

    Check Show Advanced Options to set additional logging options in a later step. This includes defining custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall (Commercial Edition only)

    The Enable Enterprise Firewall check box is selected by default. For post-installation instructions, see MySQL Enterprise Firewall.

Accounts and Roles
  • Root Account Password

    Assigning a root password is required and you will be asked for it when performing other MySQL Installer operations. Password strength is evaluated when you repeat the password in the box provided. For descriptive information regarding password requirements or status, move your mouse pointer over the information icon ( ) when it appears.

  • MySQL User Accounts

    Optionally, you can create additional MySQL user accounts with predefined user roles. Each predefined role, such as DB Admin, are configured with their own set of privileges. For example, the DB Admin role has more privileges than the DB Designer role. Click the Role drop-down list for a description of each role.

    Note

    If the MySQL server is installed, then you must also enter the current root password.

Windows Service

On the Windows platform, MySQL server can run as a named service managed by the operating system and be configured to start up automatically when Windows starts. Alternatively, you can configure MySQL server to run as an executable program that requires manual configuration.

  • Configure MySQL server as a Windows service (Selected by default.)

    When the default configuration option is selected, you can also select the following:

    • Start the MySQL Server at System Startup

      When selected (default), the service startup type is set to Automatic; otherwise, the startup type is set to Manual.

    • Run Windows Service as

      When Standard System Account is selected (default), the service logs on as Network Service.

      The Custom User option must have privileges to log on to Microsoft Windows as a service. The Next button will be disabled until this user is configured with the required privileges.

      A custom user is configured in Windows by searching for "local security policy" in the Start menu. In the Local Security Policy window, select Local Policies, User Rights Assignment, and then Log On As A Service to open the property dialog. Click Add User or Group to add the custom user and then click OK in each dialog to save the changes.

  • Deselect the Windows Service option

Plugins and Extensions

The Plugins and Extensions step is visible during a new installation of MySQL server version 5.7.12 (or higher) only. If you are upgrading from a previous MySQL version, then you need to open MySQL Installer again and select the Reconfigure MySQL server option.

  • Enable X Protocol / MySQL as a Document Store (Selected by default.)

    When the X Protocol option is selected, MySQL Installer loads and starts the X Plugin. Without the X Plugin running, X Protocol clients cannot connect to the server.

    • Port Number: 33060

      Requires an unused port. The default port number is 33060.

    • Open Firewall port for network access

      Open by default when the X Protocol is selected.

    For more information about using MySQL as a document store and the X Plugin, see Key Concepts and X Plugin.

Advanced Options

This step is available if the Show Advanced Configuration check box was selected during the Type and Networking step. To enable this step now, click Back to return to the Type and Networking step and select the check box.

Advanced configuration options are related to the following MySQL log files:

Apply Server Configuration

All configuration settings are applied to the MySQL server when you click Execute. Use the Configuration Steps tab to follow the progress of each action; the icon for each toggles from white to green on success. Otherwise, the process stops and displays an error message if an individual action times out. Click the Log tab to view the log.

When the installation is done and you click Finish, MySQL Installer and the installed MySQL products are added to the Microsoft Windows Start menu under the MySQL group. Opening MySQL Installer loads the dashboard where installed MySQL products are listed and other MySQL Installer operations are available.

2.3.3.2.3 Setting Alternative Server Paths

You can change the default installation path, the data path, or both when you install MySQL server. After you have installed the server, the paths cannot be altered without removing and reinstalling the server instance.

To change paths for MySQL server

  1. Identify the MySQL server to change and display the Advanced Options link.

    1. Navigate to the Select Products and Features step by doing one of the following:

      1. If this is an initial setup, select the Custom setup type and click Next.

      2. If MySQL Installer is installed already, launch it from the Start menu and then click Add from the dashboard.

    2. Click Edit to filter the list of products, locate the server instance to be installed in the Available Products list.

    3. With the server instance selected, use the arrow to move the selected server to the Products/Features To Be Installed list.

    4. Click the server to select it. When you select the server, the Advanced Options link appears. For details, see the figure that follows.

  2. Click Advanced Options to open a dialog window with the path-setting options. After setting the path, click Next to continue with the configuration steps.

    Figure 2.10 Change MySQL Server Path

    MySQL Installer provides the Custom setup type, which enables you to change the default installation and data paths.

2.3.3.2.4 MySQL Applications, Connectors, and Documentation

MySQL Installer provides you with a suite of tools for developing and managing business-critical applications on Windows. The suite consist of applications, connectors, documentation, and samples.

During the initial setup, choose any predetermined setup type, except Server only, to install the latest GA version of the tools. Use the Custom setup type to install an individual tool or specific version. If MySQL Installer is installed on the host already, use the Add operation to select and install tools from the MySQL Installer dashboard.

MySQL Router Configuration

MySQL Installer provides a configuration wizard that can bootstrap an installed instance of MySQL Router 2.1.3 or later to route traffic between MySQL applications and an InnoDB cluster. When configured, MySQL Router runs as a local Windows service. For detailed information about using MySQL Router with an InnoDB cluster, see Routing for MySQL InnoDB cluster.

To configure MySQL Router, do the following:

  1. Set up InnoDB cluster. For instructions on how to configure an InnoDB cluster sandbox on the local host using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3.2.1, “InnoDB Cluster Sandbox Test Setup”. InnoDB cluster requires MySQL Server 5.7.17 or higher.

    For general InnoDB cluster information, see InnoDB Cluster.

  2. Using MySQL Installer, download and install the MySQL Router application. After the installation finishes, the configuration wizard prompts you for information. Select the Configure MySQL Router for InnoDB cluster check box to begin the configuration and provide the following configuration values:

    • Hostname: localhost by default.

    • Port: The port number of the primary server in the InnoDB cluster. The default is 3310.

    • Management User: An administrative user with root-level privileges.

    • Password: The password for the management user.

    • Classic MySQL protocol connections to InnoDB cluster

      Read/Write: Set the first base port number to one that is unused (between 80 and 65532) and the wizard will select the remaining ports for you.

      The figure that follows shows an example of the MySQL Router configuration screen.

    Figure 2.11 MySQL Router Configuration

    MySQL Router configuration

  3. Click Next and then Execute to apply the configuration. Click Finish to close MySQL Installer or return to the MySQL Installer dashboard.

2.3.3.3 MySQL Installer Product Catalog and Dashboard

This section describes the MySQL Installer product catalog and the dashboard.

Product Catalog

The product catalog stores the complete list of released MySQL products for Microsoft Windows that are available to download from MySQL. By default, and when an Internet connection is present, MySQL Installer updates the catalog daily. You can also update the catalog manually from the dashboard (described later).

An up-to-date catalog performs the following actions:

  • Populates the Available Products pane of the Select Products and Features step. This step appears when you select:

    • The Custom setup type during the initial setup.

    • The Add operation from the dashboard.

  • Identifies when product updates are available for the installed products listed in the dashboard.

The catalog includes all development releases (Pre-Release), general releases (Current GA), and minor releases (Other Releases). Products in the catalog will vary somewhat, depending on the MySQL Installer edition that you download.

MySQL Installer Dashboard

Figure 2.12 MySQL Installer Dashboard Elements

MySQL Installer dashboard showing the basic operations for managing MySQL products for Windows.

Description of MySQL Installer Dashboard Elements

  1. The About MySQL button ( ) shows the current version of MySQL Installer and general information about MySQL. The version number is located above the Back button.

    Always include this version number when reporting a problem with MySQL Installer.

  2. The MySQL Installer Options button ( ) enables you to schedule daily automatic catalog updates. By default, catalog updates are scheduled at the hour when MySQL Installer was first installed. When new products or product versions are available, MySQL Installer adds them to the catalog and then displays an arrow icon ( ) next to the version number of installed products listed in the dashboard.

    Use this option to enable or disable automatic catalog updates and to reset the time of day when the MySQL Installer updates the catalog automatically. For specific settings, see the task named ManifestUpdate in the Windows Task Scheduler.

  3. MySQL Installer dashboard operations provide a variety of actions that apply to installed products or products listed in the catalog. To initiate the following operations, first click the operation link and then select the product or products to manage:

    • Add: This operation opens the Select Products and Features screen. From there, you can filter the product in the product catalog, select one or more products to download (as needed), and begin the installation. For hints about using the filter, see Locating Products to Install.

    • Modify: Use this operation to add or remove the features associated with installed products. Features that you can modify vary in complexity by product. When the Program Shortcut check box is selected, the product appears in the Start menu under the MySQL group.

    • Upgrade: This operation loads the Select Products to Upgrade screen and populates it with all the upgrade candidates. An installed product can have more than one upgrade version and requires a current product catalog.

      To choose a new product version:

      1. Confirm that the check box next to product name in the Upgradeable Products pane has a check mark. Deselect the products that you do not intend to upgrade at this time.

      2. Click a product in the list to highlight it. This action populates the Upgradeable Versions pane with the details of each available version for the selected product: version number, published date, and a Changes link to open the release notes for that version.

      MySQL Installer upgrades all of the selected products in one action. Click Show Details to view the actions performed by MySQL Installer.

    • Remove This operation opens the Remove Products screen and populates it with the MySQL products installed on the host. Select the MySQL products you want to remove (uninstall) and then click Execute to begin the removal process.

      To select products to remove, do one of the following:

      • Select the check box for one or more products.

      • Select the Product check box to select all products.

  4. The Reconfigure link in the Quick Action column next to each installed server loads the current configuration values for the server and then cycles through all configuration steps enabling you to change the options and values. On completion, MySQL Installer stops the server, applies the configuration changes, and restarts the server for you. For a description of each configuration option, see Section 2.3.3.2.2, “Server Configuration”.

    Installed Samples and Examples associated with a specific MySQL server version can be also be reconfigured to apply feature-configuration changes, if any. You must provide credentials with root privileges to reconfigure these items.

  5. The Catalog link enables you to download the latest catalog of MySQL products manually and then to integrate those product changes with MySQL Installer. The catalog-download action does not perform an upgrade of the products already installed on the host. Instead, it returns to the dashboard and displays an arrow icon in the Version column for each installed product that has a newer version. Use the Upgrade operation to install the newer product version.

    You can also use the Catalog link to display the current change history of each product without downloading the new catalog. Select the Do not update at this time check box to view the change history only.

Locating Products to Install

MySQL products in the catalog are listed by category: MySQL Servers, Applications, MySQL Connectors, and Documentation. Only the latest GA versions appear in the Available Products pane by default. If you are looking for a pre-GA or older version of a product, it may not be visible in the default list.

To change the filter that displays available products in the Select Products and Features screen, click Edit.

Figure 2.13 Filter Available Products

Edit the filter to display MySQL products.

Reset the following values to filter the list of available products:

  • Text: Filter by text.

  • Category: All Software (default), MySQL Servers, Applications, MySQL Connectors, or Documentation (for samples and documentation).

  • Age: Pre-Release, Current GA (default), or Other Releases.

  • Already Downloaded (the check box is deselected by default).

  • Architecture: Any (default), 32-bit, or 64-bit.

2.3.3.4 MySQLInstallerConsole Reference

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe provides command-line functionality that is similar to MySQL Installer. It is installed when MySQL Installer is initially executed and then available within the MySQL Installer directory. Typically, that is in C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer\, and the console must be executed with administrative privileges.

To use, invoke the command prompt with administrative privileges by choosing Start, Accessories, then right-click on Command Prompt and choose Run as administrator. And from the command line, optionally change the directory to where MySQLInstallerConsole.exe is located:

C:\> cd Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows
C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows> MySQLInstallerConsole.exe help
=================== Start Initialization ===================
MySQL Installer is running in Community mode

Attempting to update manifest.
Initializing product requirements
Loading product catalog
Checking for product catalog snippets
Checking for product packages in the bundle
Categorizing product catalog
Finding all installed packages.
Your product catalog was last updated at 11/1/2016 4:10:38 PM
=================== End Initialization ===================

The following commands are available:

Configure - Configures one or more of your installed programs.
Help      - Provides list of available commands.
Install   - Install and configure one or more available MySQL programs.
List      - Provides an interactive way to list all products available.
Modify    - Modifies the features of installed products.
Remove    - Removes one or more products from your system.
Status    - Shows the status of all installed products.
Update    - Update the current product catalog.
Upgrade   - Upgrades one or more of your installed programs.

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe supports the following options, which are specified on the command line:

Note

Configuration block values that contain a colon (":") must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0".

  • configure [product1]:[setting]=[value]; [product2]:[setting]=[value]; [...]

    Configure one or more MySQL products on your system. Multiple setting=value pairs can be configured for each product.

    Switches include:

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure -showsettings server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure server:port=3307
    
  • help [command]

    Displays a help message with usage examples, and then exits. Pass in an additional command to receive help specific to that command.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help install
    
  • install [product]:[features]:[config block]:[config block]:[config block]; [...]

    Install one or more MySQL products on your system.

    Switches and syntax options include:

    • -type=[SetupType] : Installs a predefined set of software. The "SetupType" can be one of the following:

      Note

      Non-custom setup types can only be chosen if no other MySQL products are installed.

      • Developer: Installs a complete development environment.

      • Server: Installs a single MySQL server

      • Client: Installs client programs and libraries

      • Full: Installs everything

      • Custom: Installs user selected products. This is the default option.

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    • [config block]: One or more configuration blocks can be specified. Each configuration block is a semicolon separated list of key value pairs. A block can include either a "config" or "user" type key, where "config" is the default type if one is not defined.

      Configuration block values that contain a colon (":") must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0".

      Only one "config" type block can be defined per product. A "user" block should be defined for each user that should be created during the product's installation.

      Note

      Adding users is not supported when a product is being reconfigured.

    • [feature]: The feature block is a semicolon separated list of features, or '*' to select all features.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25:*:port=3307;serverid=2:type=user;username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64 -silent
    

    An example that passes in additional configuration blocks, broken up by ^ to fit this screen:

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64:*:type=config;openfirewall=true; ^
              generallog=true;binlog=true;serverid=3306;enable_tcpip=true;port=3306;rootpasswd=pass; ^
              installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6":type=user;datadir="C:\MySQL\data";username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    
  • list

    Lists an interactive console where all of the available MySQL products can be searched. Execute MySQLInstallerConsole list to launch the console, and enter in a substring to search.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole list
    
  • modify [product1:-removelist|+addlist] [product2:-removelist|+addlist] [...]

    Modifies or displays features of a previously installed MySQL product.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:+documentation
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:-debug
    
  • remove [product1] [product2] [...]

    Removes one ore more products from your system.

    • * : Pass in * to remove all of the MySQL products.

    • -continue : Continue the operation even if an error occurs.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove server
    
  • status

    Provides a quick overview of the MySQL products that are installed on the system. Information includes product name and version, architecture, date installed, and install location.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole status
    
  • update

    Downloads the latest MySQL product catalog to your system. On success, the download catalog will be applied the next time either MySQLInstaller or MySQLInstallerConsole is executed.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole update
    
    Note

    The Automatic Catalog Update GUI option executes this command from the Windows Task Scheduler.

  • upgrade [product1:version] [product2:version] [...]

    Upgrades one or more products on your system. Syntax options include:

    • * : Pass in * to upgrade all products to the latest version, or pass in specific products.

    • ! : Pass in ! as a version number to upgrade the MySQL product to its latest version.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:!
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5 excel:1.3.2
    

2.3.4 MySQL Notifier

MySQL Notifier is a tool that enables you to monitor and adjust the status of your local and remote MySQL server instances through an indicator that resides in the system tray. MySQL Notifier also gives quick access to MySQL Workbench through its context menu.

The MySQL Notifier is installed by MySQL Installer, and (by default) will start-up when Microsoft Windows is started.

To install, download and execute the MySQL Installer, be sure the MySQL Notifier product is selected, then proceed with the installation. See the MySQL Installer manual for additional details.

For notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL Notifier, see the MySQL Notifier Release Notes.

Visit the MySQL Notifier forum for additional MySQL Notifier help and support.

Features include:

  • Start, Stop, and Restart instances of the MySQL Server.

  • Automatically detects (and adds) new MySQL Server services. These are listed under Manage Monitored Items, and may also be configured.

  • The Tray icon changes, depending on the status. It's green if all monitored MySQL Server instances are running, or red if at least one service is stopped. The Update MySQL Notifier tray icon based on service status option, which dictates this behavior, is enabled by default for each service.

  • Links to other applications like MySQL Workbench, MySQL Installer, and the MySQL Utilities. For example, choosing Manage Instance will load the MySQL Workbench Server Administration window for that particular instance.

  • If MySQL Workbench is also installed, then the Manage Instance and SQL Editor options are available for local (but not remote) MySQL instances.

  • Monitors both local and remote MySQL instances.

2.3.4.1 MySQL Notifier Usage

MySQL Notifier resides in the system tray and provides visual status information for your MySQL server instances. A green icon is displayed at the top left corner of the tray icon if the current MySQL server is running, or a red icon if the service is stopped.

MySQL Notifier automatically adds discovered MySQL services on the local machine, and each service is saved and configurable. By default, the Automatically add new services whose name contains option is enabled and set to mysql. Related Notifications Options include being notified when new services are either discovered or experience status changes, and are also enabled by default. And uninstalling a service will also remove the service from MySQL Notifier.

Clicking the system tray icon will reveal several options, as the follow figures show:

The Service Instance menu is the main MySQL Notifier window, and enables you to Stop, Start, and Restart the MySQL server.

Figure 2.14 MySQL Notifier Service Instance menu

MySQL Notifier Service Instance menu

The Actions menu includes several links to external applications (if they are installed), and a Refresh Status option to manually refresh the status of all monitored services (in both local and remote computers) and MySQL instances.

Note

The main menu will not show the Actions menu when there are no services being monitored by MySQL Notifier.

Figure 2.15 MySQL Notifier Actions menu

MySQL Notifier Actions menu

The Actions, Options menu configures MySQL Notifier and includes options to:

  • Use colorful status icons: Enables a colorful style of icons for the tray of MySQL Notifier.

  • Run at Windows Startup: Allows the application to be loaded when Microsoft Windows starts.

  • Automatically Check For Updates Every # Weeks: Checks for a new version of MySQL Notifier, and runs this check every # weeks.

  • Automatically add new services whose name contains: The text used to filter services and add them automatically to the monitored list of the local computer running MySQL Notifier, and on remote computers already monitoring Windows services.

  • Ping monitored MySQL Server instances every # seconds: The interval (in seconds) to ping monitored MySQL Server instances for status changes. Longer intervals might be necessary if the list of monitored remote instances is large.

  • Notify me when a service is automatically added: Will display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a newly discovered service is added to the monitored services list.

  • Notify me when a service changes status: Will display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a monitored service changes its status.

  • Automatic connections migration delayed until: When there are connections to migrate, postpone the migration by one hour, one day, one week, one month, or indefinitely.

Figure 2.16 MySQL Notifier Options menu

MySQL Notifier Options menu

The Actions, Manage Monitored Items menu enables you to configure the monitored services and MySQL instances. First, with the Services tab open:

Figure 2.17 MySQL Notifier Manage Services menu

MySQL Notifier Manage Services menu

The Instances tab is similar:

Figure 2.18 MySQL Notifier Manage Instances menu

MySQL Notifier Manage Instances menu

Adding a service or instance (after clicking Add in the Manage Monitored Items window) enables you to select a running Microsoft Windows service or instance connection, and configure MySQL Notifier to monitor it. Add a new service or instance by clicking service name from the list, then OK to accept. Multiple services and instances may be selected.

Figure 2.19 MySQL Notifier Adding new services

MySQL Notifier Adding new services

Add instances:

Figure 2.20 MySQL Notifier Adding new instances

MySQL Notifier Adding new instances

Troubleshooting

For issues that are not documented here, visit the MySQL Notifier Support Forum for MySQL Notifier help and support.

  • Problem: attempting to start/stop/restart a MySQL service might generate an error similar to "The Service MySQLVERSION failed the most recent status change request with the message "The service mysqlVERSION was not found in the Windows Services".

    Explanation: this is a case-sensitivity issue, in that the service name is MySQLVERSION compared to having mysqlVERSION in the configuration file.

    Solution: either update your MySQL Notifier configuration file with the correct information, or stop MySQL Notifier and delete this configuration file. The MySQL Notifier configuration file is located at %APPDATA%\Oracle\MySQL Notifier\settings.config where %APPDATA% is a variable and depends on your system. A typical location is "C:\Users\YourUsername\AppData\Running\Oracle\MySQL Notifier\settings.config" where YourUsername is your system's user name. In this file, and within the ServerList section, change the ServerName values from lowercase to the actual service names. For example, change mysqlVERSION to MySQLVERSION, save, and then restart MySQL Notifier. Alternatively, stop MySQL Notifier, delete this file, then restart MySQL Notifier.

  • Problem: when connecting to a remote computer for the purpose of monitoring a remote Windows service, the Add Service dialog does not always show all the services shown in the Windows Services console.

    Explanation: this behavior is governed by the operating system and the outcome is expected when working with nondomain user accounts. For a complete description of the behavior, see the User Account Control and WMI article from Microsoft.

    Solution: when the remote computer is in a compatible domain, it is recommended that domain user accounts are used to connect through WMI to a remote computer. For detailed setup instructions using WMI, see Section 2.3.4.2, “Setting Up Remote Monitoring in MySQL Notifier”.

    Alternatively, when domain user accounts are not available, Microsoft provides a less secure workaround that should only be implemented with caution. For more information, see the Description of User Account Control and remote restrictions in Windows Vista KB article from Microsoft.

2.3.4.2 Setting Up Remote Monitoring in MySQL Notifier

MySQL Notifier uses Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to manage and monitor services on remote computers. This section explains how it works and how to set up your system to monitor remote MySQL instances.

In order to configure WMI, it is important to understand that the underlying Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) architecture is doing the WMI work. Specifically, MySQL Notifier is using asynchronous notification queries on remote Microsoft Windows hosts as .NET events. These events send an asynchronous callback to the computer running MySQL Notifier so it knows when a service status has changed on the remote computer. Asynchronous notifications offer the best performance compared to semisynchronous notifications or synchronous notifications that use timers.

Asynchronous notification requires the remote computer to send a callback to the client computer (thus opening a reverse connection), so the Windows Firewall and DCOM settings must be properly configured for the communication to function properly.

Figure 2.21 MySQL Notifier Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

MySQL Notifier Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

Most of the common errors thrown by asynchronous WMI notifications are related to Windows Firewall blocking the communication, or to DCOM / WMI settings not being set up properly. For a list of common errors with solutions, see Common Errors.

The following steps are required to make WMI function. These steps are divided between two machines. A single host computer that runs MySQL Notifier (Computer A), and multiple remote machines that are being monitored (Computer B).

Computer running MySQL Notifier (Computer A)
  1. Enable remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor, or using NETSH:

    Using the Group Policy Editor:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, expand Computer Configuration.

    3. Expand Administrative Templates, then Network, Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.

    5. Double-click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception to open a configuration window.

    6. Check the Enabled option button and then click OK.

    Using the NETSH command:

    Note

    The "netsh firewall" command is deprecated as of Microsoft Server 2008 and Vista, and replaced with "netsh advfirewall firewall".

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and select Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
      
  2. Open the DCOM port TCP 135:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and select Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=DCOM_TCP135 protocol=TCP localport=135 dir=in action=allow
      
  3. Add the client application that contains the sink for the callback (MySqlNotifier.exe) to the Windows Firewall Exceptions List (use either the Windows Firewall configuration or NETSH):

    Using the Windows Firewall configuration:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Windows Firewall.

    2. In the Windows Firewall window's left panel, click Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall.

    3. In the Allowed Programs window, click Change Settings and do one of the following:

      • If MySqlNotifier.exe is in the Allowed programs and features list, make sure it is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

      • If MySqlNotifier.exe is not in the list, click Allow another program....

        1. In the Add a Program window, select the MySqlNotifier.exe if it exists in the Programs list, otherwise click Browse... and go to the directory where MySqlNotifier.exe was installed to select it, then click Add.

        2. Make sure MySqlNotifier.exe is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command, where you change "[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]":

      NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=MySqlNotifier program=[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]\MySqlNotifier.exe action=allow dir=in
      
  4. If Computer B is either a member of WORKGROUP or is in a different domain that is untrusted by Computer A, then the callback connection (Connection 2) is created as an Anonymous connection. To grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access, and then click OK.

Monitored Remote Computer (Computer B)

If the user account that is logged on to the computer running the MySQL Notifier (Computer A) is a local administrator on the remote computer (Computer B), such that the same account is an administrator on Computer B, you can skip to the "Allow for remote administration" step.

Setting DCOM security to allow a non-administrator user to access a computer remotely:

  1. Grant "DCOM remote launch" and activation permissions for a user or group:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Launch and Activation Permission, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, follow these steps if your name or your group does not appear in the Groups or user names list:

      1. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, click Add.

      2. In the Select Users or Groups dialog box, add your name and the group in the Enter the object names to select box, and then click OK.

    6. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, select your user and group in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Launch, select Remote Activation, and then click OK.

    Grant DCOM remote access permissions:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access, and then click OK.

  2. Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management.

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the Services and Applications tree.

    4. Right-click the WMI Control icon and select Properties.

    5. In the WMI Control Properties window, click the Security tab.

    6. In the Security tab, select the namespace and click Security. Root/CIMV2 is a commonly used namespace.

    7. Locate the appropriate account and check Remote Enable in the Permissions list.

  3. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor or using NETSH:

    Using the Group Policy Editor:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click Computer Configuration.

    3. Double-click Administrative Templates, then Network, Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.

    5. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception.

    6. On the Action menu either select Edit, or double-click the selection from the previous step.

    7. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK.

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
      
  4. Confirm that the user account you are logging in with uses the Name value and not the Full Name value:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management.

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the System Tools then Local Users and Groups.

    4. Click the Users node, and on the right side panel locate your user and make sure it uses the Name value to connect, and not the Full Name value.

Common Errors
  • 0x80070005

    • DCOM Security was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Setting DCOM security... step).

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x8007000E

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x80041003

    • Access to the remote WMI namespace was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace step).

  • 0x800706BA

    • The DCOM port is not open on the client computers (Computer A) firewall. See the Open the DCOM port TCP 135 step for Computer A.

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is inaccessible because its network location is set to Public. Make sure you can access it through the Windows Explorer.

2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using an MSI Package

The MSI package is designed to install and configure MySQL in such a way that you can immediately get started using MySQL.

The MySQL Installation Wizard and MySQL Configuration Wizard are available in the Complete install package, which is recommended for most standard MySQL installations. Exceptions include users who need to install multiple instances of MySQL on a single server host and advanced users who want complete control of server configuration.

The workflow sequence for using the installer is shown in the figure below:

Figure 2.22 Installation Workflow for Windows Using MSI Installer

Installation Workflow for Windows using MSI Installer

Note

Microsoft Windows XP and later include a firewall which specifically blocks ports. If you plan on using MySQL through a network port then you should open and create an exception for this port before performing the installation. To check and if necessary add an exception to the firewall settings:

  1. First ensure that you are logged in as an Administrator or a user with Administrator privileges.

  2. Go to the Control Panel, and double click the Windows Firewall icon.

  3. Choose the Allow a program through Windows Firewall option and click the Add port button.

  4. Enter MySQL into the Name text box and 3306 (or the port of your choice) into the Port number text box.

  5. Also ensure that the TCP protocol radio button is selected.

  6. If you wish, you can also limit access to the MySQL server by choosing the Change scope button.

  7. Confirm your choices by clicking the OK button.

Additionally, when running the MySQL Installation Wizard on Windows Vista or newer, ensure that you are logged in as a user with administrative rights.

Note

When using Windows Vista or newer, you may want to disable User Account Control (UAC) before performing the installation. If you do not do so, then MySQL may be identified as a security risk, which will mean that you need to enable MySQL. You can disable the security checking by following these instructions:

  1. Open Control Panel.

  2. Under the User Accounts and Family Safety, select Add or remove user accounts.

  3. Click the Got to the main User Accounts page link.

  4. Click on Turn User Account Control on or off. You may be prompted to provide permission to change this setting. Click Continue.

  5. Deselect or uncheck the check box next to Use User Account Control (UAC) to help protect your computer. Click OK to save the setting.

You will need to restart to complete the process. Click Restart Now to reboot the machine and apply the changes. You can then follow the instructions below for installing Windows.

2.3.5.1 Using the MySQL Installation Wizard

MySQL Installation Wizard is an installer for the MySQL server that uses the latest installer technologies for Microsoft Windows. The MySQL Installation Wizard, in combination with the MySQL Configuration Wizard, enables a user to install and configure a MySQL server that is ready for use immediately after installation.

The MySQL Installation Wizard is the standard installer for all MySQL server distributions, version 4.1.5 and higher. Users of previous versions of MySQL need to shut down and remove their existing MySQL installations manually before installing MySQL with the MySQL Installation Wizard. See Section 2.3.5.1.6, “Upgrading MySQL with the Installation Wizard”, for more information on upgrading from a previous version.

Microsoft has included an improved version of their Microsoft Windows Installer (MSI) in the recent versions of Windows. MSI has become the de-facto standard for application installations on Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003. The MySQL Installation Wizard makes use of this technology to provide a smoother and more flexible installation process.

The Microsoft Windows Installer Engine was updated with the release of Windows XP; those using a previous version of Windows can reference this Microsoft Knowledge Base article for information on upgrading to the latest version of the Windows Installer Engine.

In addition, Microsoft has introduced the WiX (Windows Installer XML) toolkit recently. This is the first highly acknowledged Open Source project from Microsoft. We have switched to WiX because it is an Open Source project and it enables us to handle the complete Windows installation process in a flexible manner using scripts.

Improving the MySQL Installation Wizard depends on the support and feedback of users like you. If you find that the MySQL Installation Wizard is lacking some feature important to you, or if you discover a bug, please report it in our bugs database using the instructions given in Section 1.6, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

2.3.5.1.1 Downloading and Starting the MySQL Installation Wizard

The MySQL installation packages can be downloaded from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. If the package you download is contained within a Zip archive, you need to extract the archive first.

Note

If you are installing on Windows Vista or newer, it is best to open a network port before beginning the installation. To do this, first ensure that you are logged in as an Administrator, go to the Control Panel, and double-click the Windows Firewall icon. Choose the Allow a program through Windows Firewall option and click the Add port button. Enter MySQL into the Name text box and 3306 (or the port of your choice) into the Port number text box. Also ensure that the TCP protocol radio button is selected. If you wish, you can also limit access to the MySQL server by choosing the Change scope button. Confirm your choices by clicking the OK button. If you do not open a port prior to installation, you cannot configure the MySQL server immediately after installation. Additionally, when running the MySQL Installation Wizard on Windows Vista or newer, ensure that you are logged in as a user with administrative rights.

The process for starting the wizard depends on the contents of the installation package you download. If there is a setup.exe file present, double-click it to start the installation process. If there is an .msi file present, double-click it to start the installation process.

2.3.5.1.2 Choosing an Install Type

There are three installation types available: Typical, Complete, and Custom.

The Typical installation type installs the MySQL server, the mysql command-line client, and the command-line utilities. The command-line clients and utilities include mysqldump, myisamchk, and several other tools to help you manage the MySQL server.

The Complete installation type installs all components included in the installation package. The full installation package includes components such as the embedded server library, the benchmark suite, support scripts, and documentation.

The Custom installation type gives you complete control over which packages you wish to install and the installation path that is used. See Section 2.3.5.1.3, “The Custom Install Dialog”, for more information on performing a custom install.

If you choose the Typical or Complete installation types and click the Next button, you advance to the confirmation screen to verify your choices and begin the installation. If you choose the Custom installation type and click the Next button, you advance to the custom installation dialog, described in Section 2.3.5.1.3, “The Custom Install Dialog”.

2.3.5.1.3 The Custom Install Dialog

If you wish to change the installation path or the specific components that are installed by the MySQL Installation Wizard, choose the Custom installation type.

A tree view on the left side of the custom install dialog lists all available components. Components that are not installed have a red X icon; components that are installed have a gray icon. To change whether a component is installed, click that component's icon and choose a new option from the drop-down list that appears.

You can change the default installation path by clicking the Change... button to the right of the displayed installation path.

After choosing your installation components and installation path, click the Next button to advance to the confirmation dialog.

2.3.5.1.4 The Confirmation Dialog

Once you choose an installation type and optionally choose your installation components, you advance to the confirmation dialog. Your installation type and installation path are displayed for you to review.

To install MySQL if you are satisfied with your settings, click the Install button. To change your settings, click the Back button. To exit the MySQL Installation Wizard without installing MySQL, click the Cancel button.

The final screen of the installer provides a summary of the installation and gives you the option to launch the MySQL Configuration Wizard, which you can use to create a configuration file, install the MySQL service, and configure security settings.

2.3.5.1.5 Changes Made by MySQL Installation Wizard

Once you click the Install button, the MySQL Installation Wizard begins the installation process and makes certain changes to your system which are described in the sections that follow.

Changes to the Registry

The MySQL Installation Wizard creates one Windows registry key in a typical install situation, located in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MySQL AB.

The MySQL Installation Wizard creates a key named after the release series of the server that is being installed, such as MySQL Server 5.5. It contains two string values, Location and Version. The Location string contains the path to the installation directory. In a default installation it contains C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\. The Version string contains the release number. For example, for an installation of MySQL Server 5.5.58, the key contains a value of 5.5.58.

These registry keys are used to help external tools identify the installed location of the MySQL server, preventing a complete scan of the hard-disk to determine the installation path of the MySQL server. The registry keys are not required to run the server, and if you install MySQL using the noinstall Zip archive, the registry keys are not created.

Changes to the Start Menu

The MySQL Installation Wizard creates a new entry in the Windows Start menu under a common MySQL menu heading named after the release series of MySQL that you have installed. For example, if you install MySQL 5.5, the MySQL Installation Wizard creates a MySQL Server 5.5 section in the Start menu.

The following entries are created within the new Start menu section:

  • MySQL Command-Line Client: This is a shortcut to the mysql command-line client and is configured to connect as the root user. The shortcut prompts for a root user password when you connect.

  • MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: This is a shortcut to the MySQL Configuration Wizard. Use this shortcut to configure a newly installed server, or to reconfigure an existing server.

  • MySQL Documentation: This is a link to the MySQL server documentation that is stored locally in the MySQL server installation directory.

Changes to the File System

The MySQL Installation Wizard by default installs the MySQL 5.5 server to C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5, where Program Files is the default location for applications in your system, and 5.5 is the release series of your MySQL server. This is the recommended location for the MySQL server, replacing the former default location C:\mysql.

By default, all MySQL applications are stored in a common directory at C:\Program Files\MySQL, where Program Files is the default location for applications in your Windows installation. A typical MySQL installation on a developer machine might look like this:

C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Workbench 5.1 OSS

This approach makes it easier to manage and maintain all MySQL applications installed on a particular system.

The default location of the data directory is the AppData directory configured for the user that installed the MySQL application.

2.3.5.1.6 Upgrading MySQL with the Installation Wizard

The MySQL Installation Wizard can perform server upgrades automatically using the upgrade capabilities of MSI. That means you do not need to remove a previous installation manually before installing a new release. The installer automatically shuts down and removes the previous MySQL service before installing the new version.

Automatic upgrades are available only when upgrading between installations that have the same major and minor version numbers. For example, you can upgrade automatically from MySQL 5.5.5 to MySQL 5.5.6, but not from MySQL 5.1 to MySQL 5.5.

See Section 2.3.10, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”.

2.3.5.2 Automating MySQL Installation on Microsoft Windows Using the MSI Package

The Microsoft Installer (MSI) supports a both a quiet and a passive mode that can be used to install MySQL automatically without requiring intervention. You can use this either in scripts to automatically install MySQL or through a terminal connection such as Telnet where you do not have access to the standard Windows user interface. The MSI packages can also be used in combination with Microsoft's Group Policy system (part of Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008) to install MySQL across multiple machines.

To install MySQL from one of the MSI packages automatically from the command line (or within a script), you need to use the msiexec.exe tool. For example, to perform a quiet installation (which shows no dialog boxes or progress):

shell> msiexec /i mysql-5.5.58.msi /quiet

The /i indicates that you want to perform an installation. The /quiet option indicates that you want no interactive elements.

To provide a dialog box showing the progress during installation, and the dialog boxes providing information on the installation and registration of MySQL, use /passive mode instead of /quiet:

shell> msiexec /i mysql-5.5.58.msi /passive

Regardless of the mode of the installation, installing the package in this manner performs a 'Typical' installation, and installs the default components into the standard location.

You can also use this method to uninstall MySQL by using the /uninstall or /x options:

shell> msiexec /x mysql-5.5.58.msi /uninstall

To install MySQL and configure a MySQL instance from the command line, see Section 2.3.6.13, “MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Creating an Instance from the Command Line”.

For information on using MSI packages to install software automatically using Group Policy, see How to use Group Policy to remotely install software in Windows Server 2003.

2.3.5.3 Removing MySQL When Installed from the MSI Package

To uninstall MySQL when you installed it using the MSI package, you must use the Add/Remove Programs tool within Control Panel. To do this:

  1. Right-click the start menu and choose Control Panel.

  2. If the Control Panel is set to category mode (you will see Pick a category at the top of the Control Panel window), double-click Add or Remove Programs. If the Control is set to classic mode, double-click the Add or Remove Programs icon.

  3. Find MySQL in the list of installed software. MySQL Server is installed against release series numbers (MySQL 5.1, MySQL 5.5, etc.). Select the version that you want to remove and click Remove.

  4. You will be prompted to confirm the removal. Click Yes to remove MySQL.

When MySQL is removed using this method, only the installed components are removed. Any database information (including the tables and data), import or export files, log files, and binary logs produced during execution are kept in their configured location.

If you try to install MySQL again the information will be retained and you will be prompted to enter the password configured with the original installation.

If you want to delete MySQL completely:

  • Delete the associated data directory. On Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, the default data directory is the configured AppData directory, which is C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\MySQL by default.

  • On Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008, the default data directory location is C:\ProgramData\Mysql.

    Note

    The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You must change your folder options to view the hidden file. Choose Organize, Folder and search options, Show hidden folders.

2.3.6 MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard

The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard helps automate the process of configuring your server. It creates a custom MySQL configuration file (my.ini or my.cnf) by asking you a series of questions and then applying your responses to a template to generate the configuration file that is tuned to your installation.

The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard is included with the MySQL 5.5 server. The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard is only available for Windows.

2.3.6.1 Starting the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard

The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard is normally started as part of the installation process. You should only need to run the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard again when you need to change the configuration parameters of your server.

If you chose not to open a port prior to installing MySQL on Windows Vista or newer, you can choose to use the MySQL Server Configuration Wizard after installation. However, you must open a port in the Windows Firewall. To do this see the instructions given in Section 2.3.5.1.1, “Downloading and Starting the MySQL Installation Wizard”. Rather than opening a port, you also have the option of adding MySQL as a program that bypasses the Windows Firewall. One or the other option is sufficient—you need not do both. Additionally, when running the MySQL Server Configuration Wizard on Windows Vista or newer, ensure that you are logged in as a user with administrative rights.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard

You can launch the MySQL Configuration Wizard by clicking the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard entry in the MySQL section of the Windows Start menu.

Alternatively, you can navigate to the bin directory of your MySQL installation and launch the MySQLInstanceConfig.exe file directly.

The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard places the my.ini file in the installation directory for the MySQL server. This helps associate configuration files with particular server instances.

To ensure that the MySQL server knows where to look for the my.ini file, an argument similar to this is passed to the MySQL server as part of the service installation:

--defaults-file="C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\my.ini"

Here, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5 is replaced with the installation path to the MySQL Server. The --defaults-file option instructs the MySQL server to read the specified file for configuration options when it starts.

Apart from making changes to the my.ini file by running the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard again, you can modify it by opening it with a text editor and making any necessary changes. You can also modify the server configuration with the http://www.mysql.com/products/administrator/ utility. For more information about server configuration, see Section 5.1.4, “Server Command Options”.

MySQL clients and utilities such as the mysql and mysqldump command-line clients are not able to locate the my.ini file located in the server installation directory. To configure the client and utility applications, create a new my.ini file in the Windows installation directory (for example, C:\WINDOWS).

Under Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Vista, MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard will configure MySQL to work as a Windows service. To start and stop MySQL you use the Services application that is supplied as part of the Windows Administrator Tools.

2.3.6.2 Choosing a Maintenance Option

If the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard detects an existing configuration file, you have the option of either reconfiguring your existing server, or removing the server instance by deleting the configuration file and stopping and removing the MySQL service.

To reconfigure an existing server, choose the Re-configure Instance option and click the Next button. Any existing configuration file is not overwritten, but renamed (within the same directory) using a timestamp (Windows) or sequential number (Linux). To remove the existing server instance, choose the Remove Instance option and click the Next button.

If you choose the Remove Instance option, you advance to a confirmation window. Click the Execute button. The MySQL Server Configuration Wizard stops and removes the MySQL service, and then deletes the configuration file. The server installation and its data folder are not removed.

If you choose the Re-configure Instance option, you advance to the Configuration Type dialog where you can choose the type of installation that you wish to configure.

2.3.6.3 Choosing a Configuration Type

When you start the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard for a new MySQL installation, or choose the Re-configure Instance option for an existing installation, you advance to the Configuration Type dialog.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Configuration Type

There are two configuration types available: Detailed Configuration and Standard Configuration. The Standard Configuration option is intended for new users who want to get started with MySQL quickly without having to make many decisions about server configuration. The Detailed Configuration option is intended for advanced users who want more fine-grained control over server configuration.

If you are new to MySQL and need a server configured as a single-user developer machine, the Standard Configuration should suit your needs. Choosing the Standard Configuration option causes the MySQL Configuration Wizard to set all configuration options automatically with the exception of Service Options and Security Options.

The Standard Configuration sets options that may be incompatible with systems where there are existing MySQL installations. If you have an existing MySQL installation on your system in addition to the installation you wish to configure, the Detailed Configuration option is recommended.

To complete the Standard Configuration, please refer to the sections on Service Options and Security Options in Section 2.3.6.10, “The Service Options Dialog”, and Section 2.3.6.11, “The Security Options Dialog”, respectively.

2.3.6.4 The Server Type Dialog

There are three different server types available to choose from. The server type that you choose affects the decisions that the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard makes with regard to memory, disk, and processor usage.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Server Type
  • Developer Machine: Choose this option for a typical desktop workstation where MySQL is intended only for personal use. It is assumed that many other desktop applications are running. The MySQL server is configured to use minimal system resources.

  • Server Machine: Choose this option for a server machine where the MySQL server is running alongside other server applications such as FTP, email, and Web servers. The MySQL server is configured to use a moderate portion of the system resources.

  • Dedicated MySQL Server Machine: Choose this option for a server machine that is intended to run only the MySQL server. It is assumed that no other applications are running. The MySQL server is configured to use all available system resources.

Note

By selecting one of the preconfigured configurations, the values and settings of various options in your my.cnf or my.ini will be altered accordingly. The default values and options as described in the reference manual may therefore be different to the options and values that were created during the execution of the configuration wizard.

2.3.6.5 The Database Usage Dialog

The Database Usage dialog enables you to indicate the storage engines that you expect to use when creating MySQL tables. The option you choose determines whether the InnoDB storage engine is available and what percentage of the server resources are available to InnoDB.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Usage Dialog
  • Multifunctional Database: This option enables both the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines and divides resources evenly between the two. This option is recommended for users who use both storage engines on a regular basis.

  • Transactional Database Only: This option enables both the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines, but dedicates most server resources to the InnoDB storage engine. This option is recommended for users who use InnoDB almost exclusively and make only minimal use of MyISAM.

  • Non-Transactional Database Only: This option disables the InnoDB storage engine completely and dedicates all server resources to the MyISAM storage engine. This option is recommended for users who do not use InnoDB.

The Configuration Wizard uses a template to generate the server configuration file. The Database Usage dialog sets one of the following option strings:

Multifunctional Database:        MIXED
Transactional Database Only:     INNODB
Non-Transactional Database Only: MYISAM

When these options are processed through the default template (my-template.ini) the result is:

Multifunctional Database:
default-storage-engine=InnoDB
_myisam_pct=50

Transactional Database Only:
default-storage-engine=InnoDB
_myisam_pct=5

Non-Transactional Database Only:
default-storage-engine=MyISAM
_myisam_pct=100
skip-innodb

The _myisam_pct value is used to calculate the percentage of resources dedicated to MyISAM. The remaining resources are allocated to InnoDB.

2.3.6.6 The InnoDB Tablespace Dialog

Some users may want to locate the InnoDB tablespace files in a different location than the MySQL server data directory. Placing the tablespace files in a separate location can be desirable if your system has a higher capacity or higher performance storage device available, such as a RAID storage system.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: InnoDB Data Tablespace

To change the default location for the InnoDB tablespace files, choose a new drive from the drop-down list of drive letters and choose a new path from the drop-down list of paths. To create a custom path, click the ... button.

If you are modifying the configuration of an existing server, you must click the Modify button before you change the path. In this situation you must move the existing tablespace files to the new location manually before starting the server.

2.3.6.7 The Concurrent Connections Dialog

To prevent the server from running out of resources, it is important to limit the number of concurrent connections to the MySQL server that can be established. The Concurrent Connections dialog enables you to choose the expected usage of your server, and sets the limit for concurrent connections accordingly. It is also possible to set the concurrent connection limit manually.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Connections
  • Decision Support (DSS)/OLAP: Choose this option if your server does not require a large number of concurrent connections. The maximum number of connections is set at 100, with an average of 20 concurrent connections assumed.

  • Online Transaction Processing (OLTP): Choose this option if your server requires a large number of concurrent connections. The maximum number of connections is set at 500.

  • Manual Setting: Choose this option to set the maximum number of concurrent connections to the server manually. Choose the number of concurrent connections from the drop-down box provided, or enter the maximum number of connections into the drop-down box if the number you desire is not listed.

2.3.6.8 The Networking and Strict Mode Options Dialog

Use the Networking Options dialog to enable or disable TCP/IP networking and to configure the port number that is used to connect to the MySQL server.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Network Configuration

TCP/IP networking is enabled by default. To disable TCP/IP networking, uncheck the box next to the Enable TCP/IP Networking option.

Port 3306 is used by default. To change the port used to access MySQL, choose a new port number from the drop-down box or type a new port number directly into the drop-down box. If the port number you choose is in use, you are prompted to confirm your choice of port number.

Set the Server SQL Mode to either enable or disable strict mode. Enabling strict mode (default) makes MySQL behave more like other database management systems. If you run applications that rely on MySQL's old forgiving behavior, make sure to either adapt those applications or to disable strict mode. For more information about strict mode, see Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”.

2.3.6.9 The Character Set Dialog

The MySQL server supports multiple character sets and it is possible to set a default server character set that is applied to all tables, columns, and databases unless overridden. Use the Character Set dialog to change the default character set of the MySQL server.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Character Set
  • Standard Character Set: Choose this option if you want to use latin1 as the default server character set. latin1 is used for English and many Western European languages.

  • Best Support For Multilingualism: Choose this option if you want to use utf8 as the default server character set. This is a Unicode character set that can store characters from many different languages.

  • Manual Selected Default Character Set / Collation: Choose this option if you want to pick the server's default character set manually. Choose the desired character set from the provided drop-down list.

2.3.6.10 The Service Options Dialog

On Windows platforms, the MySQL server can be installed as a Windows service. When installed this way, the MySQL server can be started automatically during system startup, and even restarted automatically by Windows in the event of a service failure.

The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard installs the MySQL server as a service by default, using the service name MySQL. If you do not wish to install the service, uncheck the box next to the Install As Windows Service option. You can change the service name by picking a new service name from the drop-down box provided or by entering a new service name into the drop-down box.

Note

Service names can include any legal character except forward (/) or backward (\) slashes, and must be less than 256 characters long.

Warning

If you are installing multiple versions of MySQL onto the same machine, you must choose a different service name for each version that you install. If you do not choose a different service for each installed version then the service manager information will be inconsistent and this will cause problems when you try to uninstall a previous version.

If you have already installed multiple versions using the same service name, you must manually edit the contents of the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services parameters within the Windows registry to update the association of the service name with the correct server version.

Typically, when installing multiple versions you create a service name based on the version information. For example, you might install MySQL 5.x as mysql5, or specific versions such as MySQL 5.5.0 as mysql50500.

To install the MySQL server as a service but not have it started automatically at startup, uncheck the box next to the Launch the MySQL Server Automatically option.

2.3.6.11 The Security Options Dialog

The content of the security options portion of the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard will depend on whether this is a new installation, or modifying an existing installation.

  • Setting the root password for a new installation

    It is strongly recommended that you set a root password for your MySQL server, and the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard requires by default that you do so. If you do not wish to set a root password, uncheck the box next to the Modify Security Settings option.

    MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Security
  • To set the root password, enter the desired password into both the New root password and Confirm boxes.

    Setting the root password for an existing installation

    If you are modifying the configuration of an existing configuration, or you are installing an upgrade and the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard has detected an existing MySQL system, then you must enter the existing password for root before changing the configuration information.

    MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Security (Existing Installation)

    If you want to change the current root password, enter the desired new password into both the New root password and Confirm boxes.

To permit root logins from across the network, check the box next to the Enable root access from remote machines option. This decreases the security of your root account.

To create an anonymous user account, check the box next to the Create An Anonymous Account option. Creating an anonymous account can decrease server security and cause login and permission difficulties. For this reason, it is not recommended.

2.3.6.12 The Confirmation Dialog

The final dialog in the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard is the Confirmation Dialog. To start the configuration process, click the Execute button. To return to a previous dialog, click the Back button. To exit the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard without configuring the server, click the Cancel button.

MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard: Confirmation

After you click the Execute button, the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard performs a series of tasks and displays the progress onscreen as the tasks are performed.

The MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard first determines configuration file options based on your choices using a template prepared by MySQL developers and engineers. This template is named my-template.ini and is located in your server installation directory.

The MySQL Configuration Wizard then writes these options to the corresponding configuration file.

If you chose to create a service for the MySQL server, the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard creates and starts the service. If you are reconfiguring an existing service, the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard restarts the service to apply your configuration changes.

If you chose to set a root password, the MySQL Configuration Wizard connects to the server, sets your new root password, and applies any other security settings you may have selected.

After the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard has completed its tasks, it displays a summary. Click the Finish button to exit the MySQL Server Configuration Wizard.

2.3.6.13 MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard: Creating an Instance from the Command Line

In addition to using the GUI interface to the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard, you can also create instances automatically from the command line.

To use the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard on the command line, you need to use the MySQLInstanceConfig.exe command that is installed with MySQL in the bin directory within the installation directory. MySQLInstanceConfig.exe takes a number of command-line arguments the set the properties that would normally be selected through the GUI interface, and then creates a new configuration file (my.ini) by combining these selections with a template configuration file to produce the working configuration file.

The main command line options are provided in the table below. Some of the options are required, while some options are optional.

Table 2.6 MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Command Line Options

OptionDescription
Required Parameters
-nPRODUCTNAMEThe name of the instance when installed
-pPATHPath of the base directory for installation. This is equivalent to the directory when using the basedir configuration parameter
-vVERSIONThe version tag to use for this installation
Action to Perform
-iInstall an instance
-rRemove an instance
-sStop an existing instance
-qPerform the operation quietly
-lFILENAMESae the installation progress in a logfile
Config File to Use
-tFILENAMEPath to the template config file that will be used to generate the installed configuration file
-cFILENAMEPath to a config file to be generated

The -t and -c options work together to set the configuration parameters for a new instance. The -t option specifies the template configuration file to use as the basic configuration, which are then merged with the configuration parameters generated by the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard into the configuration file specified by the -c option.

A sample template file, my-template.ini is provided in the toplevel MySQL installation directory. The file contains elements are replaced automatically by the MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard during configuration.

If you specify a configuration file that already exists, the existing configuration file will be saved in the file with the original, with the date and time added. For example, the mysql.ini will be copied to mysql 2009-10-27 1646.ini.bak.

The parameters that you can specify on the command line are listed in the table below.

Table 2.7 MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard Parameters

ParameterDescription
ServiceName=$Specify the name of the service to be created
AddBinToPath={yes | no}Specifies whether to add the binary directory of MySQL to the standard PATH environment variable
ServerType={DEVELOPMENT | SERVER | DEDICATED}Specify the server type. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.4, “The Server Type Dialog”
DatabaseType={MIXED | INNODB | MYISAM}Specify the default database type. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.5, “The Database Usage Dialog”
ConnectionUsage={DSS | OLTP}Specify the type of connection support, this automates the setting for the number of concurrent connections (see the ConnectionCount parameter). For more information, see Section 2.3.6.7, “The Concurrent Connections Dialog”
ConnectionCount=#Specify the number of concurrent connections to support. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.4, “The Server Type Dialog”
SkipNetworking={yes | no}Specify whether network support should be supported. Specifying yes disables network access altogether
Port=#Specify the network port number to use for network connections. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.8, “The Networking and Strict Mode Options Dialog”
StrictMode={yes | no}Specify whether to use the strict SQL mode. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.8, “The Networking and Strict Mode Options Dialog”
Charset=$Specify the default character set. For more information, see Section 2.3.6.9, “The Character Set Dialog”
RootPassword=$Specify the root password
RootCurrentPassword=$Specify the current root password then stopping or reconfiguring an existing service

Note

When specifying options on the command line, you can enclose the entire command-line option and the value you are specifying using double quotation marks. This enables you to use spaces in the options. For example, "-cC:\mysql.ini".

The following command installs a MySQL Server 5.5 instance from the directory C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5 using the service name MySQL55 and setting the root password to 1234.

shell> MySQLInstanceConfig.exe -i -q "-lC:\mysql_install_log.txt" »
   "-nMySQL Server 5.5" "-pC:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5" -v5.5.58 »
   "-tmy-template.ini" "-cC:\mytest.ini" ServerType=DEVELOPMENT DatabaseType=MIXED »
   ConnectionUsage=DSS Port=3311 ServiceName=MySQL55 RootPassword=1234

In the above example, a log file will be generated in mysql_install_log.txt containing the information about the instance creation process. The log file generated by the above example is shown below:

Welcome to the MySQL Server Instance Configuration Wizard 1.0.16.0
Date: 2009-10-27 17:07:21

Installing service ...

Product Name:         MySQL Server 5.5
Version:              5.5.58
Installation Path:    C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\

Creating configuration file C:\mytest.ini using template my-template.ini.
Options:
DEVELOPMENT
MIXED
DSS
STRICTMODE

Variables:
port: 3311
default-character-set: latin1
basedir: "C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 5.5/"
datadir: "C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 5.5/Data/"


Creating Windows service entry.
Service name: "MySQL55"
Parameters:   "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld" --defaults-file="C:\mytest.ini" MySQL55.
Windows service MySQL55 installed.

When using the command line, the return values in the following table indicate an error performing the specified option.

Table 2.8 Return Value from MySQL Server Instance Config Wizard

ValueDescription
2Configuration template file cannot be found
3The Windows service entry cannot be created
4Could not connect to the Service Control Manager
5The MySQL service cannot be started
6The MySQL service cannot be stopped
7The security settings cannot be applied
8The configuration file cannot be written
9The Windows service entry cannot be removed

You can perform an installation of MySQL automatically using the MSI package. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.2, “Automating MySQL Installation on Microsoft Windows Using the MSI Package”.

2.3.7 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive

Users who are installing from the noinstall package can use the instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. The process for installing MySQL from a Zip archive is as follows:

  1. Extract the archive to the desired install directory

  2. Create an option file

  3. Choose a MySQL server type

  4. Start the MySQL server

  5. Secure the default user accounts

This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.7.1 Extracting the Install Archive

To install MySQL manually, do the following:

  1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to Section 2.3.10, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”, before beginning the upgrade process.

  2. Make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator privileges.

  3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally, the MySQL server is installed in C:\mysql. The MySQL Installation Wizard installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL. If you do not install MySQL at C:\mysql, you must specify the path to the install directory during startup or in an option file. See Section 2.3.7.2, “Creating an Option File”.

    Note

    The MySQL Installer installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL.

  4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation location using your preferred Zip archive tool. Some tools may extract the archive to a folder within your chosen installation location. If this occurs, you can move the contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation location.

2.3.7.2 Creating an Option File

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that are used every time the server starts, you may find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is particularly true under the following circumstances:

  • The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data).

  • You need to tune the server settings, such as memory, cache, or InnoDB configuration information.

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for option files in several locations, such as the Windows directory, C:\, and the MySQL installation directory (for the full list of locations, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”). The Windows directory typically is named something like C:\WINDOWS. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

MySQL looks for options in each location first in the my.ini file, and then in the my.cnf file. However, to avoid confusion, it is best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where C: is not the boot drive, your only option is to use the my.ini file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

Note

When using the MySQL Installer to install MySQL Server, it will create the my.ini at the default location. And as of MySQL Server 5.5.27, the user running MySQL Installer is granted full permissions to this new my.ini.

In other words, be sure that the MySQL Server user has permission to read the my.ini file.

You can also make use of the example option files included with your MySQL distribution; see Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is in E:\mydata\data, you can create an option file containing a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data

Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data

The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

The data directory is located within the AppData directory for the user running MySQL.

If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the data directory to the new location. For example, if you want to use E:\mydata as the data directory instead, you must do two things:

  1. Move the entire data directory and all of its contents from the default location (for example C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data) to E:\mydata.

  2. Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start the server.

2.3.7.3 Selecting a MySQL Server Type

The following table shows the available servers for Windows in MySQL 5.5.

BinaryDescription
mysqldOptimized binary with named-pipe support
mysqld-debugLike mysqld, but compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

Each of the servers in a distribution support the same set of storage engines. The SHOW ENGINES statement displays which engines a given server supports.

All Windows MySQL 5.5 servers have support for symbolic linking of database directories.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. MySQL servers on Windows also support named pipes, if you start the server with the --enable-named-pipe option. It is necessary to use this option explicitly because some users have experienced problems with shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes were used. The default is to use TCP/IP regardless of platform because named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.

2.3.7.4 Starting the Server for the First Time

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a Windows service.

The information here applies primarily if you installed MySQL using the Noinstall version, or if you wish to configure and test MySQL manually rather than with the GUI tools.

Note

MySQL server will automatically start after using MySQL Installer, and MySQL Notifier can be used to start/stop/restart at any time.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5. Adjust the path names shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named-pipe connections.

MySQL for Windows also supports shared-memory connections if the server is started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=MEMORY option.

For information about which server binary to run, see Section 2.3.7.3, “Selecting a MySQL Server Type”.

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (or DOS window). In this way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

To start the server, enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld" --console

For a server that includes InnoDB support, you should see the messages similar to those following as it starts (the path names and sizes may differ):

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '5.5.58'  socket: ''  port: 3306

The server continues to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data by default). The error log is the file with the .err extension, and may be set using the --log-error option.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

2.3.7.5 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

Note

MySQL Notifier can also be used to start/stop/restart the MySQL server.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (or DOS window) and enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld"

The path to mysqld may vary depending on the install location of MySQL on your system.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Microsoft Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. By default, the error log is located in the C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data directory. It is the file with a suffix of .err, or may be specified by passing in the --log-error option. Alternatively, you can try to start the server with the --console option; in this case, the server may display some useful information on the screen that will help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with the --standalone and --debug options. In this case, mysqld writes a log file C:\mysqld.trace that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See Section 24.5.3, “The DBUG Package”.

Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld supports.

2.3.7.6 Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin)

    Note

    There must be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field.

    Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

2.3.7.7 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On Windows, the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service, so that MySQL starts and stops automatically when Windows starts and stops. A MySQL server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility. Generally, to install MySQL as a Windows service you should be logged in using an account that has administrator rights.

Note

MySQL Notifier can also be used to monitor the status of the MySQL service.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and Server 2003). To avoid conflicts, it is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from the command line.

Installing the service

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqladmin"
          -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Install the server as a service using this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld" --install

The service-installation command does not start the server. Instructions for that are given later in this section.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin), and there should be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field. Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

The following additional arguments can be used when installing the service:

  • You can specify a service name immediately following the --install option. The default service name is MySQL.

  • If a service name is given, it can be followed by a single option. By convention, this should be --defaults-file=file_name to specify the name of an option file from which the server should read options when it starts.

    The use of a single option other than --defaults-file is possible but discouraged. --defaults-file is more flexible because it enables you to specify multiple startup options for the server by placing them in the named option file.

  • You can also specify a --local-service option following the service name. This causes the server to run using the LocalService Windows account that has limited system privileges. This account is available only for Windows XP or newer. If both --defaults-file and --local-service are given following the service name, they can be in any order.

For a MySQL server that is installed as a Windows service, the following rules determine the service name and option files that the server uses:

  • If the service-installation command specifies no service name or the default service name (MySQL) following the --install option, the server uses the a service name of MySQL and reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a service name other than MySQL following the --install option, the server uses that service name. It reads options from the [mysqld] group and the group that has the same name as the service in the standard option files. This enables you to use the [mysqld] group for options that should be used by all MySQL services, and an option group with the service name for use by the server installed with that service name.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server reads options the same way as described in the previous item, except that it reads options only from the named file and ignores the standard option files.

As a more complex example, consider the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld"
          --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

Here, the default service name (MySQL) is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options from the [mysqld] option group, and only from the named file.

Note

On Windows, if the server is started with the --defaults-file and --install options, --install must be first. Otherwise, mysqld.exe will attempt to start the MySQL server.

You can also specify options as Start parameters in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Finally, before trying to start the MySQL service, make sure the user variables %TEMP% and %TMP% (and also %TMPDIR%, if it has ever been set) for the system user who is to run the service are pointing to a folder to which the user has write access. The default user for running the MySQL service is LocalSystem, and the default value for its %TEMP% and %TMP% is C:\Windows\Temp, a directory LocalSystem has write access to by default. However, if there are any changes to that default setup (for example, changes to the user who runs the service or to the mentioned user variables, or the --tmpdir option has been used to put the temporary directory somewhere else), the MySQL service might fail to run because write access to the temporary directory has not been granted to the proper user.

Starting the service

Once a MySQL server has been installed as a service, Windows starts the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using a NET START MySQL command. The NET command is not case sensitive.

When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld does not start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the MySQL data directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data). It is the file with a suffix of .err.

When a MySQL server has been installed as a service, and the service is running, Windows stops the service automatically when Windows shuts down. The server also can be stopped manually by using the Services utility, the NET STOP MySQL command, or the mysqladmin shutdown command.

You also have the choice of installing the server as a manual service if you do not wish for the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld" --install-manual
Removing the service

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running by executing NET STOP MySQL. Then use the --remove option to remove it:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqld" --remove

If mysqld is not running as a service, you can start it from the command line. For instructions, see Section 2.3.7.5, “Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line”.

If you encounter difficulties during installation, see Section 2.3.8, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

For more information about stopping or removing a MySQL Windows service, see Section 5.6.2.2, “Starting Multiple MySQL Instances as Windows Services”.

2.3.7.8 Testing The MySQL Installation

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqlshow"
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqlshow" -u root mysql
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqladmin" version status proc
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysql" test

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP addresses in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables. (Be sure that an account exists that specifies an IP address or you may not be able to connect.)

You can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the default pipe name.

If you have set a password for the root account, deleted the anonymous account, or created a new user account, then to connect to the MySQL server you must use the appropriate -u and -p options with the commands shown previously. See Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.

For more information about mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.6, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.3.8 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation

When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from starting. This section helps you diagnose and correct some of these errors.

Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log. The MySQL server uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that prevents the server from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your my.ini file. The default data directory location is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data, or C:\ProgramData\Mysql on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008. The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You need to change your folder options to see the directory and contents. For more information on the error log and understanding the content, see Section 5.4.2, “The Error Log”.

For information regarding possible errors, also consult the console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use the NET START MySQL command from the command line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.3.7.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

The following examples show other common error messages you might encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:

  • If the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database or other critical files, it displays these messages:

    System error 1067 has occurred.
    Fatal error: Can't open and lock privilege tables:
    Table 'mysql.user' doesn't exist
    

    These messages often occur when the MySQL base or data directories are installed in different locations than the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data, respectively).

    This situation can occur when MySQL is upgraded and installed to a new location, but the configuration file is not updated to reflect the new location. In addition, old and new configuration files might conflict. Be sure to delete or rename any old configuration files when upgrading MySQL.

    If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5, ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration (my.ini) file. Put the my.ini file in your Windows directory, typically C:\WINDOWS. To determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable, issue the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> echo %WINDIR%
    

    You can create or modify an option file with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is D:\MySQLdata, you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=E:/mysql
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:/MySQLdata
    

    Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.5
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:\\MySQLdata
    

    The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

    If you change the datadir value in your MySQL configuration file, you must move the contents of the existing MySQL data directory before restarting the MySQL server.

    See Section 2.3.7.2, “Creating an Option File”.

  • If you reinstall or upgrade MySQL without first stopping and removing the existing MySQL service and install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you might see this error:

    Error: Cannot create Windows service for MySql. Error: 0
    

    This occurs when the Configuration Wizard tries to install the service and finds an existing service with the same name.

    One solution to this problem is to choose a service name other than mysql when using the configuration wizard. This enables the new service to be installed correctly, but leaves the outdated service in place. Although this is harmless, it is best to remove old services that are no longer in use.

    To permanently remove the old mysql service, execute the following command as a user with administrative privileges, on the command line:

    C:\> sc delete mysql
    [SC] DeleteService SUCCESS
    

    If the sc utility is not available for your version of Windows, download the delsrv utility from http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/reskit/tools/existing/delsrv-o.asp and use the delsrv mysql syntax.

2.3.9 Windows Postinstallation Procedures

GUI tools exist that perform most of the tasks described in this section, including:

On Windows, you need not create the data directory and the grant tables. MySQL Windows distributions include the grant tables with a set of preinitialized accounts in the mysql database under the data directory.

Regarding passwords, if you installed MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you may have already assigned passwords to the accounts. (See Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”.) Otherwise, use the password-assignment procedure given in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

Before assigning passwords, you might want to try running some client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure that the server is running (see Section 2.3.7.4, “Starting the Server for the First Time”). You can also set up a MySQL service that runs automatically when Windows starts (see Section 2.3.7.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”).

These instructions assume that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer (see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”), the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5:

C:\> cd "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5"

A common installation location for installation from a Zip package is C:\mysql:

C:\> cd C:\mysql

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your command interpreter to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 2.3.7.6, “Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools”.

With the server running, issue the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include the minimum of mysql and information_schema.

The preceding command (and commands for other MySQL programs such as mysql) may not work if the correct MySQL account does not exist. For example, the program may fail with an error, or you may not be able to view all databases. If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer, the root user will have been created automatically with the password you supplied. In this case, you should use the -u root and -p options. (You must use those options if you have already secured the initial MySQL accounts.) With -p, the client program prompts for the root password. For example:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| host                      |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| servers                   |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

C:\> bin\mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | mysql_native_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+

For more information about mysql and mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool”, and Section 4.5.6, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.3.10 Upgrading MySQL on Windows

To upgrade MySQL on Windows, follow these steps:

  1. Review Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for additional information on upgrading MySQL that is not specific to Windows.

  2. Always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  3. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.

  4. Before upgrading MySQL, stop the server. If the server is installed as a service, stop the service with the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> NET STOP MySQL
    

    If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, use mysqladmin to stop it. For example, before upgrading from MySQL 5.1 to 5.5, use mysqladmin from MySQL 5.1 as follows:

    C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.1\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
    
    Note

    If the MySQL root user account has a password, invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and enter the password when prompted.

  5. Before upgrading to MySQL 5.5 from a version previous to 4.1.5, or from a version of MySQL installed from a Zip archive to a version of MySQL installed with the MySQL Installation Wizard, you must first manually remove the previous installation and MySQL service (if the server is installed as a service).

    To remove the MySQL service, use the following command:

    C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove
    

    If you do not remove the existing service, the MySQL Installation Wizard may fail to properly install the new MySQL service.

  6. If you are using the MySQL Installer, start it as described in Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows”.

    If you are using the MySQL Installation Wizard, start the wizard as described in Section 2.3.5.1, “Using the MySQL Installation Wizard”.

  7. If you are upgrading MySQL from a Zip archive, extract the archive. You may either overwrite your existing MySQL installation (usually located at C:\mysql), or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql5. Overwriting the existing installation is recommended. However, for upgrades (as opposed to installing for the first time), you must remove the data directory from your existing MySQL installation to avoid replacing your current data files. To do so, follow these steps:

    1. Unzip the Zip archive in some location other than your current MySQL installation

    2. Remove the data directory

    3. Rezip the Zip archive

    4. Unzip the modified Zip archive on top of your existing installation

    Alternatively:

    1. Unzip the Zip archive in some location other than your current MySQL installation

    2. Remove the data directory

    3. Move the data directory from the current MySQL installation to the location of the just-removed data directory

    4. Remove the current MySQL installation

    5. Move the unzipped installation to the location of the just-removed installation

  8. If you were running MySQL as a Windows service and you had to remove the service earlier in this procedure, reinstall the service. (See Section 2.3.7.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.)

  9. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.

  10. As Administrator, run mysql_upgrade to check your tables, attempt to repair them if necessary, and update your grant tables if they have changed so that you can take advantage of any new capabilities. See Section 4.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”.

  11. If you encounter errors, see Section 2.3.8, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

2.4 Installing MySQL on OS X

For a list of OS X versions that the MySQL server supports, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

MySQL for OS X is available in a number of different forms:

For additional information on using MySQL on OS X, see Section 2.4.1, “General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X”.

2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X

You should keep the following issues and notes in mind:

  • As of MySQL server 5.5.45, the DMG bundles a launchd daemon instead of the deprecated startup item. Startup items do not function as of OS X 10.10 (Yosemite), so using launchd is preferred. The available MySQL preference pane under OS X System Preferences was also updated to use launchd.

  • You may need (or want) to create a specific mysql user to own the MySQL directory and data. You can do this through the Directory Utility, and the mysql user should already exist. For use in single user mode, an entry for _mysql (note the underscore prefix) should already exist within the system /etc/passwd file.

  • Because the MySQL package installer installs the MySQL contents into a version and platform specific directory, you can use this to upgrade and migrate your database between versions. You will need to either copy the data directory from the old version to the new version, or alternatively specify an alternative datadir value to set location of the data directory. By default, the MySQL directories are installed under /usr/local/.

  • You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for bash is:

    alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    

    For tcsh, use:

    alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    

    Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. You can do this by modifying the appropriate startup file for your shell. For more information, see Section 4.2.1, “Invoking MySQL Programs”.

  • After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in /Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg.

  • Prior to OS X 10.7, MySQL server was bundled with OS X Server.

2.4.2 Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

Note

Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to stop all running MySQL server instances by using either the MySQL Manager Application (on OS X Server), the preference pane, or mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

When installing from the package version, you can also install the MySQL preference pane, which will enable you to control the startup and execution of your MySQL server from System Preferences. For more information, see Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”.

When installing using the package installer, the files are installed into a directory within /usr/local matching the name of the installation version and platform. For example, the installer file mysql-5.5.58-osx10.9-x86_64.dmg installs MySQL into /usr/local/mysql-5.5.58-osx10.9-x86_64/ . The following table shows the layout of the installation directory.

Table 2.9 MySQL Installation Layout on OS X

DirectoryContents of Directory
bin, scriptsmysqld server, client and utility programs
dataLog files, databases
docsHelper documents, like the Release Notes and build information
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
manUnix manual pages
mysql-testMySQL test suite
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
sql-benchBenchmarks
support-filesScripts and sample configuration files
/tmp/mysql.sockLocation of the MySQL Unix socket

During the package installer process, a symbolic link from /usr/local/mysql to the version/platform specific directory created during installation will be created automatically.

  1. Download and open the MySQL package installer, which is provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL installation package file. Double-click the disk image to open it.

    Figure 2.23 MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

    MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

  2. Double-click the MySQL installer package. It will be named according to the version of MySQL you have downloaded. For example, if you have downloaded MySQL server 5.5.58, double-click mysql-5.5.58-osx-10.9-x86_64.pkg.

  3. You will be presented with the opening installer dialog. Click Continue to begin installation.

    Figure 2.24 MySQL Package Installer: Introduction

    MySQL Package Installer: Introduction

  4. If you have downloaded the community version of MySQL, you will be shown a copy of the relevant GNU General Public License. Click Continue and then Agree to continue.

  5. From the Installation Type page you can either click Install to execute the installation wizard using all defaults, click Customize to alter which components to install (MySQL server, Preference Pane, Launchd Support -- all enabled by default), or click Change Installation Location to change the type of installation for either all users, only the user executing the Installer, or define a custom location.

    Figure 2.25 MySQL Package Installer: Installation Type

    MySQL Package Installer: Installation Type

    Figure 2.26 MySQL Package Installer: Destination Select (Change Installation Location)

    MySQL Package Installer: Destination Select (Change Installation Location)

    Figure 2.27 MySQL Package Installer: Customize

    MySQL Package Installer: Customize

  6. Click Install to begin the installation process.

  7. Once the installation has been completed successfully, you will be shown an Install Succeeded message with a short summary. Now, Close the wizard and begin using the MySQL server.

    Figure 2.28 MySQL Package Installer: Summary

    MySQL Package Installer: Summary

MySQL server is now installed, but it is not loaded (started) by default. Use either launchctl from the command line, or start MySQL by clicking "Start" using the MySQL preference pane. For additional information, see Section 2.4.3, “Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon”, and Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”.

2.4.3 Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon

OS X uses launch daemons to automatically start, stop, and manage processes and applications such as MySQL.

Note

Before MySQL 5.5.45, the OS X builds installed startup items instead of launchd daemons. However, startup items do not function as of OS X 10.10 (Yosemite). The OS X builds now install launchd daemons.

By default, the installation package (DMG) on OS X installs a launchd file named /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist that contains a plist definition similar to:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN"
  "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
            <string>--basedir=/usr/local/mysql</string>
            <string>--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data</string>
            <string>--plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin</string>
            <string>--log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err</string>
            <string>--pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.pid</string>
            <string>--port=3306</string>
        </array>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
</dict>
</plist>

Note

Some users report that adding a plist DOCTYPE declaration causes the launchd operation to fail, despite it passing the lint check. We suspect it's a copy-n-paste error. The md5 checksum of a file containing the above snippet is 60d7963a0bb2994b69b8b9c123db09df.

To enable the launchd service, you can either:

  • Click Start MySQL Server from the MySQL preference pane.

    Figure 2.29 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

    MySQL Preference Pane: Location

    Figure 2.30 MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

    MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

  • Or, manually load the launchd file.

    shell> cd /Library/LaunchDaemons
    shell> sudo launchctl load -F com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
    
Note

When upgrading MySQL server, the launchd installation process will remove the old startup items that were installed with MySQL server 5.5.44 and below.

2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane

The MySQL Installation Package includes a MySQL preference pane that enables you to start, stop, and control automated startup during boot of your MySQL installation.

This preference pane is installed by default, and is listed under your system's System Preferences window.

Figure 2.31 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

MySQL Preference Pane: Location

To install the MySQL Preference Pane:

  1. Download and open the MySQL package installer, which is provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL installation package.

    Note

    Before MySQL 5.5.45, OS X packages included the deprecated startup items instead of launchd daemons, and the preference pane managed that intstead of launchd.

    Figure 2.32 MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

    MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

  2. Go through the process of installing the MySQL server, as described in the documentation at Section 2.4.2, “Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages”.

  3. Click Customize at the Installation Type step. The "Preference Pane" option is listed there and enabled by default.

    Figure 2.33 MySQL Installer on OS X: Customize

    MySQL Installer on OS X: Customize

  4. Complete the MySQL server installation process.

Note

The MySQL preference pane only starts and stops MySQL installation installed from the MySQL package installation that have been installed in the default location.

Once the MySQL preference pane has been installed, you can control your MySQL server instance using the preference pane. To use the preference pane, open the System Preferences... from the Apple menu. Select the MySQL preference pane by clicking the MySQL logo within the bottom section of the preference panes list.

Figure 2.34 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

MySQL Preference Pane: Location

Figure 2.35 MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

The MySQL Preference Pane shows the current status of the MySQL server, showing stopped (in red) if the server is not running and running (in green) if the server has already been started. The preference pane also shows the current setting for whether the MySQL server has been set to start automatically.

  • To start the MySQL server using the preference pane:

    Click Start MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username and password of a user with administrator privileges to start the MySQL server.

  • To stop the MySQL server using the preference pane:

    Click Stop MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username and password of a user with administrator privileges to stop the MySQL server.

  • To automatically start the MySQL server when the system boots:

    Check the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server on Startup.

  • To disable automatic MySQL server startup when the system boots:

    Uncheck the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server on Startup.

You can close the System Preferences... window once you have completed your settings.

2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL. The recommended method is to use one of the distributions from Oracle. If you choose this method, there are several options available:

As an alternative, you can use the native package manager within your Linux distribution to automatically download and install MySQL for you. Native package installations can take care of the download and dependencies required to run MySQL, but the MySQL version will often be some versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development releases, as these are not usually made available in the native repository. For more information on using the native package installers, see Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers”.

Note

For many Linux installations, you will want to set up MySQL to be started automatically when your machine starts. Many of the native package installations perform this operation for you, but for source, binary and RPM solutions you may need to set this up separately. The required script, mysql.server, can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as /etc/init.d/mysql for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 4.3.3, “mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script”.

2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages

Note

To install or upgrade to MySQL 5.5.31, be sure to read the special instructions at the end of this section.

The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux distributions is by using the RPM packages. The RPMs that we provide to the community should work on all versions of Linux that support RPM packages and use glibc 2.3. To obtain RPM packages, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

For non-RPM Linux distributions, you can install MySQL using a .tar.gz package. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Installations created from our Linux RPM distributions result in files under the system directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.10 MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM Packages

DirectoryContents of Directory
/usr/binClient programs and scripts
/usr/sbinThe mysqld server
/var/lib/mysqlLog files, databases
/var/lib/mysql-filesValue of secure_file_priv
/usr/share/infoMySQL manual in Info format
/usr/share/manUnix manual pages
/usr/include/mysqlInclude (header) files
/usr/lib/mysqlLibraries
/usr/share/mysqlMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
/usr/share/sql-benchBenchmarks

Note

RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead. Because of these differences, RPM packages built by Oracle check whether such RPMs built by other vendors are installed. If so, the RPM does not install and produces a message explaining this.

Conflicts can arise when an RPM from another vendor is already installed, such as when a vendor's conventions about which files belong with the server and which belong with the client library differ from the breakdown used for Oracle packages. In such cases, attempts to install an Oracle RPM with rpm -i may result in messages that files in the RPM to be installed conflict with files from an installed package (denoted mysql-libs in the following paragraphs).

Each MySQL release provides a MySQL-shared-compat package that is meant to replace mysql-libs and provides a replacement-compatible client library for older MySQL series. MySQL-shared-compat is set up to make mysql-libs obsolete, but rpm explicitly refuses to replace obsoleted packages when invoked with -i (unlike -U), which is why installation with rpm -i produces a conflict.

MySQL-shared-compat can safely be installed alongside mysql-libs because libraries are installed to different locations. Therefore, it is possible to install MySQL-shared-compat first, then manually remove mysql-libs before continuing with the installation. After mysql-libs is removed, the dynamic linker stops looking for the client library in the location where mysql-libs puts it, and the library provided by the MySQL-shared-compat package takes over.

Another alternative is to install packages using yum. In a directory containing all RPM packages for a MySQL release, yum install MySQL*rpm installs them in the correct order and removes mysql-libs in one step without conflicts.

In most cases, you need install only the MySQL-server and MySQL-client packages to get a functional standard MySQL installation. The other packages are not required for a standard installation.

RPMs for NDB Cluster.  Standard MySQL server RPMs built by MySQL do not provide support for the NDBCLUSTER storage engine.

Important

When upgrading an NDB Cluster RPM installation, you must upgrade all installed RPMs, including the Server and Client RPMs.

For more information about installing NDB Cluster from RPMs, see Section 18.2, “NDB Cluster Installation and Upgrades”.

For upgrades, if your installation was originally produced by installing multiple RPM packages, it is best to upgrade all the installed packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

If the data directory exists at RPM installation time, the installation process does not modify existing data. This has the effect, for example, that accounts in the grant tables are not initialized to the default set of accounts.

If you get a dependency failure when trying to install MySQL packages (for example, error: removing these packages would break dependencies: libmysqlclient.so.10 is needed by ...), you should also install the MySQL-shared-compat package, which includes the shared libraries for older releases for backward compatibility.

The following list shows the available RPM packages. The names shown here use a suffix of .glibc23.i386.rpm, but particular packages can have different suffixes, described later. If you plan to install multiple RPM packages, you may wish to download the RPM Bundle tar file instead, which contains multiple RPM packages so that you need not download them separately.

  • MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The MySQL server. You need this unless you only want to connect to a MySQL server running on another machine.

  • MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want to install this package.

  • MySQL-devel-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The libraries and include files needed to compile other MySQL clients, such as the Perl MySQL module. Install this RPM if you intend to compile C API applications.

  • MySQL-shared-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The shared libraries (libmysqlclient.so*) that certain languages and applications need to dynamically load and use MySQL. It contains single-threaded and thread-safe libraries. Install this RPM if you intend to compile or run C API applications that depend on the shared client library. Prior to MySQL 5.5.6, if you install this package, do not install the MySQL-shared-compat package.

  • MySQL-shared-compat-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The shared libraries for older releases. It contains single-threaded and thread-safe libraries. Install this package if you have applications installed that are dynamically linked against older versions of MySQL but you want to upgrade to the current version without breaking the library dependencies. Before MySQL 5.5.6, MySQL-shared-compat also includes the libraries for the current release, so if you install it, you should not also install MySQL-shared. As of 5.5.6, MySQL-shared-compat does not include the current library version, so there is no conflict.

    As of MySQL 5.5.23, the MySQL-shared-compat RPM package enables users of Red Hat-provided mysql-*-5.1 RPM packages to migrate to Oracle-provided MySQL-*-5.5 packages. MySQL-shared-compat replaces the Red Hat mysql-libs package by replacing libmysqlclient.so files of the latter package, thus satisfying dependencies of other packages on mysql-libs. This change affects only users of Red Hat (or Red Hat-compatible) RPM packages. Nothing is different for users of Oracle RPM packages.

  • MySQL-embedded-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The embedded MySQL server library.

  • MySQL-test-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The MySQL test suite.

  • MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

    The source code for all of the previous packages. It can also be used to rebuild the RPMs on other architectures (for example, SPARC).

In RPM package names, the suffix (following the VERSION value) has the following syntax:

.PLATFORM.CPU.rpm

The PLATFORM and CPU values indicate the type of system for which the package is built. PLATFORM indicates the platform and CPU indicates the processor type or family.

All packages are dynamically linked against glibc 2.3. The PLATFORM value indicates whether the package is platform independent or intended for a specific platform, as shown in the following table.

Table 2.11 MySQL Linux RPM Package Platforms

PLATFORM ValueIntended Use
glibc23Platform independent, should run on any Linux distribution that supports glibc 2.3
rhel4, rhel5Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 or 5
el6Enterprise Linux 6
sles10, sles11SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 or 11

In MySQL 5.5, only glibc23 packages are available currently.

The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the package is built, as shown in the following table.

Table 2.12 MySQL Linux RPM Package CPU Identifiers

CPU ValueIntended Processor Type or Family
i386, i586, i686Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
x86_6464-bit x86 processor
ia64Itanium (IA-64) processor

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, a MySQL-server RPM), run a command like this (modify the platform and CPU identifiers appropriately for your system):

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, install the server and client RPMs:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

To install only the client programs, install just the client RPM:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

RPM provides a feature to verify the integrity and authenticity of packages before installing them. To learn more about this feature, see Section 2.1.3, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG”.

The server RPM places data under the /var/lib/mysql directory. The RPM also creates a login account for a user named mysql (if one does not exist) to use for running the MySQL server, and creates the appropriate entries in /etc/init.d/ to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation and have made changes to its startup script, you may want to make a copy of the script so that you can reinstall it after you install a newer RPM.) See Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”, for more information on how MySQL can be started automatically at system startup.

In MySQL 5.5.5 and later, during a new installation using RPM packages, the server boot scripts are installed, but the MySQL server is not started at the end of the installation, since the status of the server during an unattended installation is not known.

In MySQL 5.5.5 and later, during an upgrade installation using RPM packages, if the MySQL server is running when the upgrade occurs, the MySQL server is stopped, the upgrade occurs, and the MySQL server is restarted. If the MySQL server is not already running when the RPM upgrade occurs, the MySQL server is not started at the end of the installation.

If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation section. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Note

The accounts created in the MySQL grant tables for an RPM installation initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should assign passwords to them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

An RPM installation creates a user named mysql and a group named mysql on the system using the useradd, groupadd, and usermod commands. Those commands require appropriate administrative privileges, which is required for locally managed users and groups (as listed in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files) by the RPM installation process being run by root.

If you log in as the mysql user, you may find that MySQL displays Invalid (old?) table or database name errors that mention .mysqlgui, lost+found, .mysqlgui, .bash_history, .fonts.cache-1, .lesshst, .mysql_history, .profile, .viminfo, and similar files created by MySQL or operating system utilities. You can safely ignore these error messages or remove the files or directories that cause them if you do not need them.

For nonlocal user management (LDAP, NIS, and so forth), the administrative tools may require additional authentication (such as a password), and will fail if the installing user does not provide this authentication. Even if they fail, the RPM installation will not abort but succeed, and this is intentional. If they failed, some of the intended transfer of ownership may be missing, and it is recommended that the system administrator then manually ensures some appropriate user and group exists and manually transfers ownership following the actions in the RPM spec file.

In MySQL 5.5.31, the RPM spec file has been updated, which has the following consequences:

  • For a non-upgrade installation (no existing MySQL version installed), it possible to install MySQL using yum.

  • For upgrades, it is necessary to clean up any earlier MySQL installations. In effect, the update is performed by removing the old installations and installing the new one.

Additional details follow.

For a non-upgrade installation of MySQL 5.5.31, it is possible to install using yum:

shell> yum install MySQL-server-NEWVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

For upgrades to MySQL 5.5.31, the upgrade is performed by removing the old installation and installing the new one. To do this, use the following procedure:

  1. Remove the existing 5.5.X installation. OLDVERSION is the version to remove.

    shell> rpm -e MySQL-server-OLDVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
    

    Repeat this step for all installed MySQL RPMs.

  2. Install the new version. NEWVERSION is the version to install.

    shell> rpm -ivh MySQL-server-NEWVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
    

Alternatively, the removal and installation can be done using yum:

shell> yum remove MySQL-server-OLDVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
shell> yum install MySQL-server-NEWVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

For some Linux distributions, it might be necessary to increase the limit on number of file descriptors available to mysqld. See Section B.5.2.18, “File Not Found and Similar Errors”

2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages

Oracle provides Debian packages for installation on Debian or Debian-like Linux systems. To obtain a package, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

Note

Debian distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by us in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

Debian package files have names in mysql-MVER-DVER-CPU.deb format. MVER is the MySQL version and DVER is the Debian version. The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the package is built, as shown in the following table.

Table 2.13 MySQL Installation Packages for Linux CPU Identifiers

CPU ValueIntended Processor Type or Family
i686Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
x86_6464-bit x86 processor

After downloading a Debian package, use the following command to install it;

shell> dpkg -i mysql-MVER-DVER-CPU.deb

The Debian package installs files in the /opt/mysql/server-5.5 directory.

You may also need to install the libaio library if it is not already present on your system:

shell> sudo apt-get install libaio1

2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers

Many Linux distributions include a version of the MySQL server, client tools, and development components in their native software repositories and can be installed with the platforms' standard package management systems. This section provides basic instructions for installing MySQL using those package management systems.

Important

Native package installations can take care of the download and dependencies required to run MySQL, but the MySQL version will often be some way behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development releases, as these are not usually made available in the native repository.

Distribution specific instructions are shown below:

  • Red Hat Linux, Fedora, CentOS

    For Red Hat and similar distributions, the MySQL distribution is divided into a number of separate packages, mysql for the client tools, mysql-server for the server and associated tools, and mysql-libs for the libraries. The libraries are required if you want to provide connectivity from different languages and environments such as Perl, Python and others.

    To install, use the yum command to specify the packages that you want to install. For example:

    root-shell> yum install mysql mysql-server mysql-libs mysql-server
    Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
    Setting up Install Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    ================================================================================
     Package               Arch          Version               Repository      Size
    ================================================================================
    Installing:
     mysql                 x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        889 k
     mysql-libs            x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        1.2 M
     mysql-server          x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        8.1 M
    Installing for dependencies:
     perl-DBD-MySQL        x86_64        4.017-1.fc13          updates        136 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    ================================================================================
    Install       4 Package(s)
    Upgrade       0 Package(s)
    
    Total download size: 10 M
    Installed size: 30 M
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
    Processing delta metadata
    Package(s) data still to download: 10 M
    (1/4): mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm                    | 889 kB     00:04
    (2/4): mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm               | 1.2 MB     00:06
    (3/4): mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm             | 8.1 MB     00:40
    (4/4): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64.rpm            | 136 kB     00:00
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total                                           201 kB/s |  10 MB     00:52
    Running rpm_check_debug
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Installing     : mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                          1/4
      Installing     : mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                               2/4
      Installing     : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64                       3/4
      Installing     : mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                        4/4
    
    Installed:
      mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13            mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13
      mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13
    
    Dependency Installed:
      perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13
    
    Complete!
    

    MySQL and the MySQL server should now be installed. A sample configuration file is installed into /etc/my.cnf. An init script, to start and stop the server, will have been installed into /etc/init.d/mysqld. To start the MySQL server use service:

    root-shell> service mysqld start
    

    To enable the server to be started and stopped automatically during boot, use chkconfig:

    root-shell> chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
    

    Which enables the MySQL server to be started (and stopped) automatically at the specified the run levels.

    The database tables will have been automatically created for you, if they do not already exist. You should, however, run mysql_secure_installation to set the root passwords on your server.

  • Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu

    On Debian and related distributions, there are two packages, mysql-client and mysql-server, for the client and server components respectively. You should specify an explicit version, for example mysql-client-5.1, to ensure that you install the version of MySQL that you want.

    To download and install, including any dependencies, use the apt-get command, specifying the packages that you want to install.

    Note

    Before installing, make sure that you update your apt-get index files to ensure you are downloading the latest available version.

    A sample installation of the MySQL packages might look like this (some sections trimmed for clarity):

    root-shell> apt-get install mysql-client-5.1 mysql-server-5.1
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree
    Reading state information... Done
    The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
      linux-headers-2.6.28-11 linux-headers-2.6.28-11-generic
    Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
    The following extra packages will be installed:
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-common postfix
    Suggested packages:
      dbishell libipc-sharedcache-perl tinyca procmail postfix-mysql postfix-pgsql
      postfix-ldap postfix-pcre sasl2-bin resolvconf postfix-cdb
    The following NEW packages will be installed
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-client-5.1 mysql-common mysql-server-5.1 postfix
    0 upgraded, 13 newly installed, 0 to remove and 182 not upgraded.
    Need to get 1907kB/25.3MB of archives.
    After this operation, 59.5MB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
    Get: 1 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main mysql-common 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [63.6kB]
    Get: 2 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main libmysqlclient15off 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [1843kB]
    Fetched 1907kB in 9s (205kB/s)
    Preconfiguring packages ...
    Selecting previously deselected package mysql-common.
    (Reading database ... 121260 files and directories currently installed.)
    ...
    Processing 1 added doc-base file(s)...
    Registering documents with scrollkeeper...
    Setting up libnet-daemon-perl (0.43-1) ...
    Setting up libplrpc-perl (0.2020-1) ...
    Setting up libdbi-perl (1.607-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient15off (5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5) ...
    
    Setting up libdbd-mysql-perl (4.008-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient16 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-client-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-server-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
     * Stopping MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
    100825 11:46:15  InnoDB: Started; log sequence number 0 46409
    100825 11:46:15  InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
    100825 11:46:17  InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 0 46409
    100825 11:46:17 [Warning] Forcing shutdown of 1 plugins
     * Starting MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
     * Checking for corrupt, not cleanly closed and upgrade needing tables.
    ...
    Processing triggers for libc6 ...
    ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
    
    Note

    The apt-get command will install a number of packages, including the MySQL server, in order to provide the typical tools and application environment. This can mean that you install a large number of packages in addition to the main MySQL package.

    During installation, the initial database will be created, and you will be prompted for the MySQL root password (and confirmation). A configuration file will have been created in /etc/mysql/my.cnf. An init script will have been created in /etc/init.d/mysql.

    The server will already be started. You can manually start and stop the server using:

    root-shell> service mysql [start|stop]
    

    The service will automatically be added to the 2, 3 and 4 run levels, with stop scripts in the single, shutdown and restart levels.

  • Gentoo Linux

    As a source-based distribution, installing MySQL on Gentoo involves downloading the source, patching the Gentoo specifics, and then compiling the MySQL server and installing it. This process is handled automatically by the emerge command.

    The MySQL server and client tools are provided within a single package, dev-db/mysql. You can obtain a list of the versions available to install by looking at the portage directory for the package:

    root-shell> ls /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.5*
    mysql-5.5.46.ebuild
    mysql-5.5.47.ebuild
    

    To install a specific MySQL version, you must specify the entire atom. For example:

    root-shell> emerge =dev-db/mysql-5.5.46
    

    After installation, you should initialize the data directory and set the password for the MySQL root user (see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”). Alternatively, use the configuration interface to perform those tasks:

    root-shell> emerge --config =dev-db/mysql-5.5.46
    

    During installation, a sample configuration file is created for you in /etc/mysql/my.cnf, and an init script is created in /etc/init.d/mysql.

    To enable MySQL to start automatically at the normal (default) run levels, use this command:

    root-shell> rc-update add mysql default
    

2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL, covered in Section 2.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux”. One of the methods, covered in this section, is installing from Oracle's Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). You can find information about Oracle Linux and ULN under http://linux.oracle.com/.

To use ULN, you need to obtain a ULN login and register the machine used for installation with ULN. This is described in detail in the ULN FAQ. The page also describes how to install and update packages.The MySQL packages are in the MySQL for Oracle Linux 6 channel for your system architecture on ULN.

Note

At the time of this writing, ULN provides MySQL 5.5 for Oracle Linux 6.

Once MySQL has been installed using ULN, you can find information on starting and stopping the server, and more, in this section, particularly under Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.

If you're updating an existing MySQL installation to an installation using ULN, the recommended procedure is to export your data using mysqldump, remove the existing installation, install MySQL from ULN, and load the exported data into your freshly installed MySQL.

If the existing MySQL installation you're upgrading from is from a previous release series (prior to MySQL 5.5), make sure to read the section on upgrading MySQL, Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”.

2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris

Note

MySQL 5.5 supports Solaris 10 (Update 11 and later), and Solaris 11 (Update 3 and later).

MySQL on Solaris is available in a number of different formats.

To obtain a binary MySQL distribution for Solaris in tarball or PKG format, http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.5.html.

Additional notes to be aware of when installing and using MySQL on Solaris:

  • If you want to use MySQL with the mysql user and group, use the groupadd and useradd commands:

    groupadd mysql
    useradd -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
    
  • If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on Solaris, because the Solaris tar cannot handle long file names, use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. If you do not have GNU tar on your system, install it with the following command:

    pkg install archiver/gnu-tar
    
  • You should mount any file systems on which you intend to store InnoDB files with the forcedirectio option. (By default mounting is done without this option.) Failing to do so will cause a significant drop in performance when using the InnoDB storage engine on this platform.

  • If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to /etc/init.d and create a symbolic link to it named /etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server.

  • If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you should see this error in the MySQL log:

    Error in accept: Protocol error
    

    You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this.

  • To configure the generation of core files on Solaris you should use the coreadm command. Because of the security implications of generating a core on a setuid() application, by default, Solaris does not support core files on setuid() programs. However, you can modify this behavior using coreadm. If you enable setuid() core files for the current user, they will be generated using the mode 600 and owned by the superuser.

2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG

You can install MySQL on Solaris using a binary package using the native Solaris PKG format instead of the binary tarball distribution.

To use this package, download the corresponding mysql-VERSION-solaris10-PLATFORM.pkg.gz file, then uncompress it. For example:

shell> gunzip mysql-5.5.58-solaris10-x86_64.pkg.gz

To install a new package, use pkgadd and follow the onscreen prompts. You must have root privileges to perform this operation:

shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.5.58-solaris10-x86_64.pkg

The following packages are available:
  1  mysql     MySQL Community Server (GPL)
               (i86pc) 5.5.58

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

The PKG installer installs all of the files and tools needed, and then initializes your database if one does not exist. To complete the installation, you should set the root password for MySQL as provided in the instructions at the end of the installation. Alternatively, you can run the mysql_secure_installation script that comes with the installation.

By default, the PKG package installs MySQL under the root path /opt/mysql. You can change only the installation root path when using pkgadd, which can be used to install MySQL in a different Solaris zone. If you need to install in a specific directory, use a binary tar file distribution.

The pkg installer copies a suitable startup script for MySQL into /etc/init.d/mysql. To enable MySQL to startup and shutdown automatically, you should create a link between this file and the init script directories. For example, to ensure safe startup and shutdown of MySQL you could use the following commands to add the right links:

shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc3.d/S91mysql
shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc0.d/K02mysql

To remove MySQL, the installed package name is mysql. You can use this in combination with the pkgrm command to remove the installation.

To upgrade when using the Solaris package file format, you must remove the existing installation before installing the updated package. Removal of the package does not delete the existing database information, only the server, binaries and support files. The typical upgrade sequence is therefore:

shell> mysqladmin shutdown
shell> pkgrm mysql
shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.5.58-solaris10-x86_64.pkg
shell> mysqld_safe &
shell> mysql_upgrade

You should check the notes in Section 2.11, “Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL” before performing any upgrade.

2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD

This section provides information about installing MySQL on variants of FreeBSD Unix.

You can install MySQL on FreeBSD by using the binary distribution provided by Oracle. For more information, see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following benefits:

  • A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known to work on your version of FreeBSD.

  • Automatic configuration and build.

  • Startup scripts installed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d.

  • The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are installed.

  • The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer want it on your machine.

The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.

To install using the ports system:

# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql55-server
# make
...
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql55-client
# make
...

The standard port installation places the server into /usr/local/libexec/mysqld, with the startup script for the MySQL server placed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.

Some additional notes on the BSD implementation:

  • To remove MySQL after installation using the ports system:

    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql55-server
    # make deinstall
    ...
    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql55-client
    # make deinstall
    ...
    
  • If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable should help. See Section 4.9, “MySQL Program Environment Variables”.

2.9 Installing MySQL from Source

Building MySQL from the source code enables you to customize build parameters, compiler optimizations, and installation location. For a list of systems on which MySQL is known to run, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

Before you proceed with an installation from source, check whether Oracle produces a precompiled binary distribution for your platform and whether it works for you. We put a great deal of effort into ensuring that our binaries are built with the best possible options for optimal performance. Instructions for installing binary distributions are available in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Warning

Building MySQL with nonstandard options may lead to reduced functionality, performance, or security.

Note

This section describes how to build MySQL from source using CMake. Before MySQL 5.5, source builds used the GNU autotools on Unix-like systems. Source builds on Windows used CMake, but the process was different from that described here. For source-building instructions for older versions of MySQL, see the MySQL 5.1 Reference Manual. If you are familiar with autotools but not CMake, you might find these transition instructions helpful: Autotools to CMake Transition Guide

Source Installation Methods

There are two methods for installing MySQL from source:

  • Use a standard MySQL source distribution. To obtain a standard distribution, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For instructions on building from a standard distribution, see Section 2.9.2, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”.

    Standard distributions are available as compressed tar files, Zip archives, or RPM packages. Distribution files have names of the form mysql-VERSION.tar.gz, mysql-VERSION.zip, or mysql-VERSION.rpm, where VERSION is a number like 5.5.58. File names for source distributions can be distinguished from those for precompiled binary distributions in that source distribution names are generic and include no platform name, whereas binary distribution names include a platform name indicating the type of system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

  • Use a MySQL development tree. For information on building from one of the development trees, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

Source Installation System Requirements

Installation of MySQL from source requires several development tools. Some of these tools are needed no matter whether you use a standard source distribution or a development source tree. Other tool requirements depend on which installation method you use.

To install MySQL from source, the following system requirements must be satisfied, regardless of installation method:

  • CMake, which is used as the build framework on all platforms. CMake can be downloaded from http://www.cmake.org.

  • A good make program. Although some platforms come with their own make implementations, it is highly recommended that you use GNU make 3.75 or higher. It may already be available on your system as gmake. GNU make is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/make/.

  • A working ANSI C++ compiler. GCC 4.2.1 or later, Sun Studio 12 or later, Visual Studio 2008 or later, and many current vendor-supplied compilers are known to work.

  • Sufficient free memory. If you encounter problems such as internal compiler error when compiling large source files, it may be that you have too little memory. If compiling on a virtual machine, try increasing the memory allocation.

  • Perl is needed if you intend to run test scripts. Most Unix-like systems include Perl. On Windows, you can use a version such as ActiveState Perl.

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution, one of the following tools is required to unpack the distribution file:

  • For a .tar.gz compressed tar file: GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

    GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

  • For a .zip Zip archive: WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

  • For an .rpm RPM package: The rpmbuild program used to build the distribution unpacks it.

To install MySQL from a development source tree, the following additional tools are required:

  • The Git revision control system is required to obtain the development source code. The GitHub Help provides instructions for downloading and installing Git on different platforms. MySQL officially joined GitHub in September, 2014. For more information about MySQL's move to GitHub, refer to the announcement on the MySQL Release Engineering blog: MySQL on GitHub

  • bison 2.1 or higher, available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. (Version 1 is no longer supported.) Use the latest version of bison where possible; if you experience problems, upgrade to a later version, rather than revert to an earlier one.

    bison is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. bison for Windows can be downloaded from http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/bison.htm. Download the package labeled Complete package, excluding sources. On Windows, the default location for bison is the C:\Program Files\GnuWin32 directory. Some utilities may fail to find bison because of the space in the directory name. Also, Visual Studio may simply hang if there are spaces in the path. You can resolve these problems by installing into a directory that does not contain a space; for example C:\GnuWin32.

  • On Solaris Express, m4 must be installed in addition to bison. m4 is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/.

Note

If you have to install any programs, modify your PATH environment variable to include any directories in which the programs are located. See Section 4.2.10, “Setting Environment Variables”.

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.6, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

2.9.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation

By default, when you install MySQL after compiling it from source, the installation step installs files under /usr/local/mysql. The component locations under the installation directory are the same as for binary distributions. See Table 2.3, “MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package”, and Section 2.3.1, “MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows”. To configure installation locations different from the defaults, use the options described at Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

2.9.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution:

  1. Verify that your system satisfies the tool requirements listed at Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  2. Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

  3. Configure, build, and install the distribution using the instructions in this section.

  4. Perform postinstallation procedures using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

In MySQL 5.5, CMake is used as the build framework on all platforms. The instructions given here should enable you to produce a working installation. For additional information on using CMake to build MySQL, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

If you start from a source RPM, use the following command to make a binary RPM that you can install. If you do not have rpmbuild, use rpm instead.

shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

The result is one or more binary RPM packages that you install as indicated in Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.

The sequence for installation from a compressed tar file or Zip archive source distribution is similar to the process for installing from a generic binary distribution (see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”), except that it is used on all platforms and includes steps to configure and compile the distribution. For example, with a compressed tar file source distribution on Unix, the basic installation command sequence looks like this:

# Preconfiguration setup
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
# Beginning of source-build specific instructions
shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld
shell> cmake ..
shell> make
shell> make install
# End of source-build specific instructions
# Postinstallation setup
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

A more detailed version of the source-build specific instructions is shown following.

Note

The procedure shown here does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”, for postinstallation setup and testing.

Perform Preconfiguration Setup

On Unix, set up the mysql user and group that will be used to run and execute the MySQL server and own the database directory. For details, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. Then perform the following steps as the mysql user, except as noted.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it.

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

  • To unpack a compressed tar file, tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

    shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
    

    If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it:

    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    

    Alternatively, CMake can uncompress and unpack the distribution:

    shell> cmake -E tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
    
  • To unpack a Zip archive, use WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

Unpacking the distribution file creates a directory named mysql-VERSION.

Configure the Distribution

Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

shell> cd mysql-VERSION

Build out of the source tree to keep the tree clean. If the top-level source directory is named mysql-src under your current working directory, you can build in a directory named bld at the same level. Create the directory and go there:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld

Configure the build directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake ../mysql-src

The build directory needs not be outside the source tree. For example, you can build in a directory named bld under the top-level source tree. To do this, starting with mysql-src as your current working directory, create the directory bld and then go there:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld

Configure the build directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake ..

If you have multiple source trees at the same level (for example, to build multiple versions of MySQL), the second strategy can be advantageous. The first strategy places all build directories at the same level, which requires that you choose a unique name for each. With the second strategy, you can use the same name for the build directory within each source tree. The following instructions assume this second strategy.

On Windows, specify the development environment. For example, the following commands configure MySQL for 32-bit or 64-bit builds, respectively:

shell> cmake .. -G "Visual Studio 9 2008"
shell> cmake .. -G "Visual Studio 9 2008 Win64"

On OS X, to use the Xcode IDE:

shell> cmake .. -G Xcode

When you run cmake, you might want to add options to the command line. Here are some examples:

For a more extensive list of options, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

To list the configuration options, use one of the following commands:

shell> cmake .. -L   # overview
shell> cmake .. -LH  # overview with help text
shell> cmake .. -LAH # all params with help text
shell> ccmake ..     # interactive display

If CMake fails, you might need to reconfigure by running it again with different options. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run these commands in the build direcotry on Unix before re-running CMake:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

Or, on Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you are going to send mail to a MySQL mailing list to ask for configuration assistance, first check the files in the CMakeFiles directory for useful information about the failure. To file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.6, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

Build the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make
shell> make VERBOSE=1

The second command sets VERBOSE to show the commands for each compiled source.

Use gmake instead on systems where you are using GNU make and it has been installed as gmake.

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo

If you have gotten to the compilation stage, but the distribution does not build, see Section 2.9.5, “Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL”, for help. If that does not solve the problem, please enter it into our bugs database using the instructions given in Section 1.6, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”. If you have installed the latest versions of the required tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you get a command not found error or a similar problem for required tools, do not report it. Instead, make sure that all the required tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.

Install the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make install

This installs the files under the configured installation directory (by default, /usr/local/mysql). You might need to run the command as root.

To install in a specific directory, add a DESTDIR parameter to the command line:

shell> make install DESTDIR="/opt/mysql"

Alternatively, generate installation package files that you can install where you like:

shell> make package

This operation produces one or more .tar.gz files that can be installed like generic binary distribution packages. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. If you run CMake with -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=1, the operation produces a single file. Otherwise, it produces multiple files.

On Windows, generate the data directory, then create a .zip archive installation package:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project initial_database
shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project package

You can install the resulting .zip archive where you like. See Section 2.3.7, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.9.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree

This section describes how to install MySQL from the latest development source code, which is hosted on GitHub. To obtain the MySQL Server source code from this repository hosting service, you can set up a local MySQL Git repository.

On GitHub, MySQL Server and other MySQL projects are found on the MySQL page. The MySQL Server project is a single repository that contains branches for several MySQL series.

MySQL officially joined GitHub in September, 2014. For more information about MySQL's move to GitHub, refer to the announcement on the MySQL Release Engineering blog: MySQL on GitHub

Prerequisites for Installing from Development Source

To install MySQL from a development source tree, your system must satisfy the tool requirements outlined in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

Setting Up a MySQL Git Repository

To set up a MySQL Git repository on your machine, use this procedure:

  1. Clone the MySQL Git repository to your machine. The following command clones the MySQL Git repository to a directory named mysql-server. The initial download will take some time to complete, depending on the speed of your connection.

    ~$ git clone https://github.com/mysql/mysql-server.git
    Cloning into 'mysql-server'...
    remote: Counting objects: 1035465, done.
    remote: Total 1035465 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
    Receiving objects: 100% (1035465/1035465), 437.48 MiB | 5.10 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (855607/855607), done.
    Checking connectivity... done.
    Checking out files: 100% (21902/21902), done.
  2. When the clone operation completes, the contents of your local MySQL Git repository appear similar to the following:

    ~$ cd mysql-server
    
    ~/mysql-server$ ls
    BUILD            COPYING             libmysqld    regex          tests
    BUILD-CMAKE      dbug                libservices  scripts        unittest
    client           Docs                man          sql            VERSION
    cmake            extra               mysql-test   sql-bench      vio
    CMakeLists.txt   include             mysys        sql-common     win
    cmd-line-utils   INSTALL-SOURCE      packaging    storage        zlib
    config.h.cmake   INSTALL-WIN-SOURCE  plugin       strings
    configure.cmake  libmysql            README       support-files
  3. Use the git branch -r command to view the remote tracking branches for the MySQL repository.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch -r
      origin/5.5
      origin/5.6
      origin/5.7
      origin/HEAD -> origin/5.7
      origin/cluster-7.2
      origin/cluster-7.3
      origin/cluster-7.4
  4. To view the branches that are checked out in your local repository, issue the git branch command. When you cloned the MySQL Git repository, the MySQL 5.7 branch was checked out automatically. The asterisk identifies the 5.7 branch as the active branch.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch
    * 5.7
  5. To check out a different MySQL branch, run the git checkout command, specifying the branch name. For example, to checkout the MySQL 5.5 branch:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 5.5
    Branch 5.5 set up to track remote branch 5.5 from origin.
    Switched to a new branch '5.5'
  6. Run git branch again to verify that the MySQL 5.5 branch is present. MySQL 5.5, which is the last branch you checked out, is marked by an asterisk indicating that it is the active branch.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch
    * 5.5
      5.7

    The git checkout command is also used to switch branches. For example, to make MySQL 5.7 the active branch again, you would run git checkout 5.7.

  7. To obtain changes made after your initial setup of the MySQL Git repository, switch to the branch you want to update and issue the git pull command:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 5.5
    ~/mysql-server$ git pull
    

    To examine the commit history, use the git log option:

    ~/mysql-server$ git log
    

    You can also browse commit history and source code on the GitHub MySQL site.

    If you see changes or code that you have a question about, send an email to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.5.2, “MySQL Mailing Lists”. For information about contributing a patch, see Contributing to MySQL Server.

  8. After you have cloned the MySQL Git repository and have checked out the branch you want to build, you can build MySQL Server from the source code. Instructions are provided in Section 2.9.2, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”, except that you skip the part about obtaining and unpacking the distribution.

    Be careful about installing a build from a distribution source tree on a production machine. The installation command may overwrite your live release installation. If you already have MySQL installed and do not want to overwrite it, run CMake with values for the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options different from those used by your production server. For additional information about preventing multiple servers from interfering with each other, see Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

    Play hard with your new installation. For example, try to make new features crash. Start by running make test. See Section 24.1.2, “The MySQL Test Suite”.

2.9.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options

The CMake program provides a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically, you do this using options on the CMake command line. For information about options supported by CMake, run either of these commands in the top-level source directory:

shell> cmake . -LH
shell> ccmake .

You can also affect CMake using certain environment variables. See Section 4.9, “MySQL Program Environment Variables”.

The following table shows the available CMake options. In the Default column, PREFIX stands for the value of the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option, which specifies the installation base directory. This value is used as the parent location for several of the installation subdirectories.

Table 2.14 MySQL Source-Configuration Option Reference (CMake)

FormatsDescriptionDefaultIntroducedRemoved
BUILD_CONFIGUse same build options as official releases 5.5.7 
CMAKE_BUILD_TYPEType of build to produceRelWithDebInfo5.5.7 
CMAKE_CXX_FLAGSFlags for C++ Compiler   
CMAKE_C_FLAGSFlags for C Compiler   
CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIXInstallation base directory/usr/local/mysql5.5.8 
COMPILATION_COMMENTComment about compilation environment 5.5.7 
CPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALLWhether package build produces single fileOFF5.5.7 
DEFAULT_CHARSETThe default server character setlatin15.5.7 
DEFAULT_COLLATIONThe default server collationlatin1_swedish_ci5.5.7 
ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILEWhether to enable LOCAL for LOAD DATA INFILEOFF5.5.7 
ENABLED_PROFILINGWhether to enable query profiling codeON5.5.7 
ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNCWhether to enable Debug Sync supportON5.5.75.5.55
ENABLE_DOWNLOADSWhether to download optional filesOFF5.5.7 
ENABLE_DTRACEWhether to include DTrace support 5.5.7 
ENABLE_GCOVWhether to include gcov support 5.5.14 
IGNORE_AIO_CHECKWith -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release, ignore libaio checkOFF5.5.9 
INSTALL_BINDIRUser executables directoryPREFIX/bin5.5.7 
INSTALL_DOCDIRDocumentation directoryPREFIX/docs5.5.7 
INSTALL_DOCREADMEDIRREADME file directoryPREFIX5.5.7 
INSTALL_INCLUDEDIRHeader file directoryPREFIX/include5.5.7 
INSTALL_INFODIRInfo file directoryPREFIX/docs5.5.7 
INSTALL_LAYOUTSelect predefined installation layoutSTANDALONE5.5.7 
INSTALL_LIBDIRLibrary file directoryPREFIX/lib5.5.7 
INSTALL_MANDIRManual page directoryPREFIX/man5.5.7 
INSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIRShared data directoryPREFIX/share5.5.7 
INSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIRmysql-test directoryPREFIX/mysql-test5.5.7 
INSTALL_PLUGINDIRPlugin directoryPREFIX/lib/plugin5.5.7 
INSTALL_SBINDIRServer executable directoryPREFIX/bin5.5.7 
INSTALL_SCRIPTDIRScripts directoryPREFIX/scripts5.5.7 
INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIVDIRsecure_file_priv default valueplatform specific5.5.53 
INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIV_EMBEDDEDDIRsecure_file_priv default value for libmysqld 5.5.53 
INSTALL_SHAREDIRaclocal/mysql.m4 installation directoryPREFIX/share5.5.7 
INSTALL_SQLBENCHDIRsql-bench directoryPREFIX5.5.7 
INSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIRExtra support files directoryPREFIX/support-files5.5.7 
MEMCACHED_HOMEPath to memcached[none]5.5.16-ndb-7.2.2 
MYSQL_DATADIRData directory 5.5.7 
MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODEWhether to enable MySQL maintainer-specific development environmentOFF5.5.7 
MYSQL_PROJECT_NAMEWindows/OS X project nameMySQL5.5.21 
MYSQL_TCP_PORTTCP/IP port number33065.5.7 
MYSQL_UNIX_ADDRUnix socket file/tmp/mysql.sock5.5.7 
ODBC_INCLUDESODBC includes directory   
ODBC_LIB_DIRODBC library directory   
SYSCONFDIROption file directory 5.5.7 
TMPDIRtmpdir default value 5.5.36 
WITHOUT_SERVERDo not build the serverOFF  
WITHOUT_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINEExclude storage engine xxx from build 5.5.7 
WITH_ASANEnable AddressSanitizerOFF5.5.35 
WITH_BUNDLED_LIBEVENTUse bundled libevent when building ndbmemcacheON5.5.16-ndb-7.2.2 
WITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHEDUse bundled memcached when building ndbmemcacheON5.5.16-ndb-7.2.2 
WITH_CLASSPATHClasspath to use when building MySQL Cluster Connector for Java. Default is an empty string.  
WITH_DEBUGWhether to include debugging supportOFF5.5.7 
WITH_EMBEDDED_SERVERWhether to build embedded serverOFF5.5.7 
WITH_EMBEDDED_SHARED_LIBRARYWhether to build a shared embedded server libraryOFF5.5.37 
WITH_ERROR_INSERTEnable error injection in the NDB storage engine. Should not be used for building binaries intended for production.OFF  
WITH_EXTRA_CHARSETSWhich extra character sets to includeall5.5.7 
WITH_LIBEDITUse bundled libedit libraryON5.5.7 
WITH_LIBWRAPWhether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) supportOFF5.5.7 
WITH_NDBCLUSTERBuild the NDB storage engine; alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINEON  
WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINEBuild the NDB storage engineON  
WITH_NDBMTDBuild multi-threaded data node.ON  
WITH_NDB_BINLOGEnable binary logging by default by mysqld.ON  
WITH_NDB_DEBUGProduce a debug build for testing or troubleshooting.OFF  
WITH_NDB_JAVAEnable building of Java and ClusterJ support. Enabled by default. Supported in MySQL Cluster only.ON5.5.27-ndb-7.2.9 
WITH_NDB_PORTDefault port used by a management server built with this option. If this option was not used to build it, the management server's default port is 1186.[none]  
WITH_NDB_TESTInclude NDB API test programs.OFF  
WITH_READLINEUse bundled readline libraryOFF5.5.7 
WITH_SSLType of SSL supportbundled5.5.7 
WITH_UNIT_TESTSCompile MySQL with unit testsON  
WITH_UNIXODBCEnable unixODBC supportOFF  
WITH_VALGRINDWhether to compile in Valgrind header filesOFF5.5.6 
WITH_ZLIBType of zlib supportbundled5.5.7 
WITH_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINECompile storage engine xxx statically into server 5.5.7 

The following sections provide more information about CMake options.

For boolean options, the value may be specified as 1 or ON to enable the option, or as 0 or OFF to disable the option.

Many options configure compile-time defaults that can be overridden at server startup. For example, the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options that configure the default installation base directory location, TCP/IP port number, and Unix socket file can be changed at server startup with the --basedir, --port, and --socket options for mysqld. Where applicable, configuration option descriptions indicate the corresponding mysqld startup option.

General Options

  • -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release

    This option configures a source distribution with the same build options used by Oracle to produce binary distributions for official MySQL releases.

  • -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=type

    The type of build to produce:

    • RelWithDebInfo: Enable optimizations and generate debugging information. This is the default MySQL build type.

    • Debug: Disable optimizations and generate debugging information. This build type is also used if the WITH_DEBUG option is enabled. That is, -DWITH_DEBUG=1 has the same effect as -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug.

  • -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=bool

    This option affects whether the make package operation produces multiple installation package files or a single file. If disabled, the operation produces multiple installation package files, which may be useful if you want to install only a subset of a full MySQL installation. If enabled, it produces a single file for installing everything.

Installation Layout Options

The CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option indicates the base installation directory. Other options with names of the form INSTALL_xxx that indicate component locations are interpreted relative to the prefix and their values are relative pathnames. Their values should not include the prefix.

  • -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=dir_name

    The installation base directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --basedir option.

  • -DINSTALL_BINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install user programs.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCDIR=dir_name

    Where to install documentation.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCREADMEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install README files.

  • -DINSTALL_INCLUDEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install header files.

  • -DINSTALL_INFODIR=dir_name

    Where to install Info files.

  • -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=name

    Select a predefined installation layout:

    • STANDALONE: Same layout as used for .tar.gz and .zip packages. This is the default.

    • RPM: Layout similar to RPM packages.

    • SVR4: Solaris package layout.

    • DEB: DEB package layout (experimental).

    You can select a predefined layout but modify individual component installation locations by specifying other options. For example:

    shell> cmake . -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=SVR4 -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/var/mysql/data
    
  • -DINSTALL_LIBDIR=dir_name

    Where to install library files.

  • -DINSTALL_MANDIR=dir_name

    Where to install manual pages.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install shared data files.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysql-test directory. As of MySQL 5.5.32, to suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=).

  • -DINSTALL_PLUGINDIR=dir_name

    The location of the plugin directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --plugin_dir option.

  • -DINSTALL_SBINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysqld server.

  • -DINSTALL_SCRIPTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install mysql_install_db.

  • -DINSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIVDIR=dir_name

    The default value for the secure_file_priv system variable. The default value is platform specific and depends on the value of the INSTALL_LAYOUT CMake option; see the description of the secure_file_priv system variable in Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.5.53. To set the value for the libmysqld embedded server, use INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIV_EMBEDDEDDIR.

  • -DINSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIV_EMBEDDEDDIR=dir_name

    The default value for the secure_file_priv system variable, for the libmysqld embedded server. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.53.

  • -DINSTALL_SHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install aclocal/mysql.m4.

  • -DINSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the sql-bench directory. To suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR=).

  • -DINSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIR=dir_name

    Where to install extra support files.

  • -DMYSQL_DATADIR=dir_name

    The location of the MySQL data directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --datadir option.

  • -DODBC_INCLUDES=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC includes directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DODBC_LIB_DIR=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC library directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DSYSCONFDIR=dir_name

    The default my.cnf option file directory.

    This location cannot be set at server startup, but you can start the server with a given option file using the --defaults-file=file_name option, where file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • -DTMPDIR=dir_name

    The default location to use for the tmpdir system variable. If unspecified, the value defaults to P_tmpdir in <stdio.h>. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.16.

Storage Engine Options

Storage engines are built as plugins. You can build a plugin as a static module (compiled into the server) or a dynamic module (built as a dynamic library that must be installed into the server using the INSTALL PLUGIN statement or the --plugin-load option before it can be used). Some plugins might not support static or dynamic building.

The InnoDB, MyISAM, MERGE, MEMORY, and CSV engines are mandatory (always compiled into the server) and need not be installed explicitly.

To compile a storage engine statically into the server, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. Some permissible engine values are ARCHIVE, BLACKHOLE, EXAMPLE, FEDERATED, NDBCLUSTER (NDB), PARTITION (partitioning support), and PERFSCHEMA (Performance Schema). Examples:

-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
Note

WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE is supported only when building NDB Cluster using the NDB Cluster sources. It cannot be used to enable clustering support in other MySQL source trees or distributions. In MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2 source distributions, it is enabled by default. See Section 18.2.1.4, “Building NDB Cluster from Source on Linux”, and Section 18.2.2.2, “Compiling and Installing NDB Cluster from Source on Windows”, for more information.

To exclude a storage engine from the build, use -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. Examples:

-DWITHOUT_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

If neither -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE nor -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE are specified for a given storage engine, the engine is built as a shared module, or excluded if it cannot be built as a shared module.

Feature Options

  • -DCOMPILATION_COMMENT=string

    A descriptive comment about the compilation environment.

  • -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=charset_name

    The server character set. By default, MySQL uses the latin1 (cp1252 West European) character set.

    charset_name may be one of binary, armscii8, ascii, big5, cp1250, cp1251, cp1256, cp1257, cp850, cp852, cp866, cp932, dec8, eucjpms, euckr, gb2312, gbk, geostd8, greek, hebrew, hp8, keybcs2, koi8r, koi8u, latin1, latin2, latin5, latin7, macce, macroman, sjis, swe7, tis620, ucs2, ujis, utf8, utf8mb4, utf16, utf32. The permissible character sets are listed in the cmake/character_sets.cmake file as the value of CHARSETS_AVAILABLE.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --character_set_server option.

  • -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=collation_name

    The server collation. By default, MySQL uses latin1_swedish_ci. Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available for each character set.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --collation_server option.

  • -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=bool

    Note

    As of MySQL 5.5.55, ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC is removed and enabling WITH_DEBUG enables Debug Sync.

    Whether to compile the Debug Sync facility into the server. This facility is used for testing and debugging. This option is enabled by default, but has no effect unless MySQL is configured with debugging enabled. If debugging is enabled and you want to disable Debug Sync, use -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=0.

    When compiled in, Debug Sync is disabled by default at runtime. To enable it, start mysqld with the --debug-sync-timeout=N option, where N is a timeout value greater than 0. (The default value is 0, which disables Debug Sync.) N becomes the default timeout for individual synchronization points.

    For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test Synchronization.

  • -DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=bool

    Whether to download optional files. For example, with this option enabled, CMake downloads the Google Test distribution that is used by the test suite to run unit tests.

  • -DENABLE_DTRACE=bool

    Whether to include support for DTrace probes. For information about DTrace, wee Section 5.7, “Tracing mysqld Using DTrace”

  • -DENABLE_GCOV=bool

    Whether to include gcov support (Linux only).

  • -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=bool

    This option controls the compiled-in default LOCAL capability for the MySQL client library. Clients that make no explicit arrangements therefore have LOCAL capability disabled or enabled according to the ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE setting specified at MySQL build time.

    By default, the client library in MySQL binary distributions is compiled with ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE enabled. If you compile MySQL from source, configure it with ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE disabled or enabled based on whether clients that make no explicit arrangements should have LOCAL capability disabled or enabled, respectively.

    ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE controls the default for client-side LOCAL capability. For the server, the local_infile system variable controls server-side LOCAL capability. To explicitly cause the server to refuse or permit LOAD DATA LOCAL statements (regardless of how client programs and libraries are configured at build time or runtime), start mysqld with local_infile disabled or enabled, respectively. local_infile can also be set at runtime. See Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”.

  • -DENABLED_PROFILING=bool

    Whether to enable query profiling code (for the SHOW PROFILE and SHOW PROFILES statements).

  • -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=bool

    If the -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release option is given on Linux, the libaio library must be linked in by default. If you do not have libaio or do not want to install it, you can suppress the check for it by specifying -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=1. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.9.

  • -DMYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE=bool

    Whether to enable a MySQL maintainer-specific development environment. If enabled, this option causes compiler warnings to become errors.

  • -DMYSQL_PROJECT_NAME=name

    For Windows or OS X, the project name to incorporate into the project file name. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.21.

  • -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=port_num

    The port number on which the server listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is 3306.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --port option.

  • -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=file_name

    The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for socket connections. This must be an absolute path name. The default is /tmp/mysql.sock.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --socket option.

  • -DWITH_ASAN=bool

    Whether to enable AddressSanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.35.

  • -DWITH_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to include debugging support.

    Configuring MySQL with debugging support enables you to use the --debug="d,parser_debug" option when you start the server. This causes the Bison parser that is used to process SQL statements to dump a parser trace to the server's standard error output. Typically, this output is written to the error log.

    As of MySQL 5.5.55, enabling WITH_DEBUG also enables Debug Sync. For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test Synchronization.

  • -DWITH_EMBEDDED_SERVER=bool

    Whether to build the libmysqld embedded server library.

  • -DWITH_EMBEDDED_SHARED_LIBRARY=bool

    Whether to build a shared libmysqld embedded server library. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.37.

  • -DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=name

    Which extra character sets to include:

    • all: All character sets. This is the default.

    • complex: Complex character sets.

    • none: No extra character sets.

  • -DWITH_LIBEDIT=bool

    Whether to use the libedit library bundled with the distribution.

  • -DWITH_LIBWRAP=bool

    Whether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) support.

  • -DWITH_READLINE=bool

    Whether to use the readline library bundled with the distribution.

  • -DWITH_SSL=ssl_type

    The type of SSL support to include, if any:

    • no: No SSL support. This is the default before MySQL 5.5.56. As of 5.5.56, this is no longer a permitted value and the default is bundled.

    • yes: Use the system SSL library if present, else the library bundled with the distribution.

    • bundled: Use the SSL library bundled with the distribution. This is the default as of MySQL 5.5.56.

    • system: Use the system SSL library.

    For information about using SSL support, see Section 6.4, “Using Secure Connections”.

  • -DWITH_UNIT_TESTS={ON|OFF}

    If enabled, compile MySQL with unit tests. The default is ON unless the server is not being compiled.

  • -DWITH_UNIXODBC=1

    Enables unixODBC support, for Connector/ODBC.

  • -DWITH_VALGRIND=bool

    Whether to compile in the Valgrind header files, which exposes the Valgrind API to MySQL code. The default is OFF.

    To generate a Valgrind-aware debug build, -DWITH_VALGRIND=1 normally is combined with -DWITH_DEBUG=1. See Building Debug Configurations.

  • -DWITH_ZLIB=zlib_type

    Some features require that the server be built with compression library support, such as the COMPRESS() and UNCOMPRESS() functions, and compression of the client/server protocol. The WITH_ZLIB indicates the source of zlib support:

    • bundled: Use the zlib library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system zlib library.

  • -DWITHOUT_SERVER=bool

    Whether to build without the MySQL server. The default is OFF, which does build the server.

Compiler Flags

  • -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS="flags"

    Flags for the C Compiler.

  • -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS="flags"

    Flags for the C++ Compiler.

To specify your own C and C++ compiler flags, for flags that do not affect optimization, use the CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS CMake options.

When providing your own compiler flags, you might want to specify CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE as well.

For example, to create a 32-bit release build on a 64-bit Linux machine, do this:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld
shell> cmake .. -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS=-m32 \
         -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS=-m32 \
         -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=RelWithDebInfo

If you set flags that affect optimization (-Onumber), you must set the CMAKE_C_FLAGS_build_type and/or CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_build_type options, where build_type corresponds to the CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE value. To specify a different optimization for the default build type (RelWithDebInfo) set the CMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO options. For example, to compile on Linux with -O3 and with debug symbols, do this:

shell> cmake .. -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO="-O3 -g" \
         -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO="-O3 -g"

CMake Options for Compiling NDB Cluster

The following options are for use when building MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2 or later. These options are supported only with the MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2 and later NDB Cluster sources; they are not supported when using sources from the MySQL 5.5 Server tree.

  • -DMEMCACHED_HOME=dir_name

    Perform the build using the memcached (version 1.6 or later) installed in the system directory indicated by dir_name. Files from this installation that are used in the build include the memcached binary, header files, and libraries, as well as the memcached_utilities library and the header file engine_testapp.h.

    You must leave this option unset when building ndbmemcache using the bundled memcached sources (WITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED option); in other words, the bundled sources are used by default).

    This option was added in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2.2.

    While additional CMake options—such as for SASL authorization and for providing dtrace support—are available for use when compiling memcached from external sources, these options are currently not enabled for the memcached sources bundled with NDB Cluster.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_LIBEVENT={ON|OFF}

    Use the libevent included in the NDB Cluster sources when building NDB Cluster with ndbmemcached support (MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2.2 and later). Enabled by default. OFF causes the system's libevent to be used instead.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED={ON|OFF}

    Build the memcached sources included in the NDB Cluster source tree (MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2.3 and later), then use the resulting memcached server when building the ndbmemcache engine. In this case, make install places the memcached binary in the installation bin directory, and the ndbmemcache engine shared library file ndb_engine.so in the installation lib directory.

    This option is ON by default.

  • -DWITH_CLASSPATH=path

    Sets the classpath for building NDB Cluster Connector for Java. The default is empty. In MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2.9 and later, this option is ignored if -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF is used.

  • -DWITH_ERROR_INSERT={ON|OFF}

    Enables error injection in the NDB kernel. For testing only; not intended for use in building production binaries. The default is OFF.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE={ON|OFF}

    Build and link in support for the NDB (NDBCLUSTER) storage engine in mysqld. The default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER={ON|OFF}

    This is an alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE.

  • -DWITH_NDBMTD={ON|OFF}

    Build the multi-threaded data node executable ndbmtd. The default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDB_BINLOG={ON|OFF}

    Enable binary logging by default in the mysqld built using this option. ON by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_DEBUG={ON|OFF}

    Enable building the debug versions of the NDB Cluster binaries. OFF by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_JAVA={ON|OFF}

    Enable building NDB Cluster with Java support, including ClusterJ.

    This option was added in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.2.9, and is ON by default. If you do not wish to compile NDB Cluster with Java support, you must disable it explicitly by specifying -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF when running CMake. Otherwise, if Java cannot be found, configuration of the build fails.

  • -DWITH_NDB_PORT=port

    Causes the NDB Cluster management server (ndb_mgmd) that is built to use this port by default. If this option is unset, the resulting management server tries to use port 1186 by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_TEST={ON|OFF}

    If enabled, include a set of NDB API test programs. The default is OFF.

2.9.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run the following commands before re-running CMake:

On Unix:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you build outside of the source tree, remove and recreate your build directory before re-running CMake. For instructions on building outside of the source tree, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

On some systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. The following list describes other problems that have been found to occur most often when compiling MySQL:

  • To define which C and C++ compilers to use, you can define the CC and CXX environment variables. For example:

    shell> CC=gcc
    shell> CXX=g++
    shell> export CC CXX
    

    To specify your own C and C++ compiler flags, use the CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS CMake options. See Compiler Flags.

    To see what flags you might need to specify, invoke mysql_config with the --cflags option.

  • To see what commands are executed during the compile stage, after using CMake to configure MySQL, run make VERBOSE=1 rather than just make.

  • If compilation fails, check whether the MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE option is enabled. This mode causes compiler warnings to become errors, so disabling it may enable compilation to proceed.

  • If your compile fails with errors such as any of the following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:

    make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
    Badly formed macro assignment
    

    Or:

    make: file `Makefile' line 18: Must be a separator (:
    

    Or:

    pthread.h: No such file or directory
    

    Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.

    GNU make 3.75 is known to work.

  • The sql_yacc.cc file is generated from sql_yacc.yy. Normally, the build process does not need to create sql_yacc.cc because MySQL comes with a pregenerated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:

    "sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
    

    This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install a recent version of bison (the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.

    Versions of bison older than 1.75 may report this error:

    sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
    

    The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is caused by bugs in older versions of bison.

For information about acquiring or updating tools, see the system requirements in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.9.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools

Third-party tools that need to determine the MySQL version from the MySQL source can read the VERSION file in the top-level source directory. The file lists the pieces of the version separately. For example, if the version is MySQL 5.7.4-m14, the file looks like this:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR=5
MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR=7
MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH=4
MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA=-m14

If the source is not for a General Availablility (GA) release, the MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA value will be nonempty. For the example, the value corresponds to Milestone 14.

To construct a five-digit number from the version components, use this formula:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR*10000 + MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR*100 + MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH

2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing

This section discusses tasks that you should perform after installing MySQL:

When you are ready to create additional user accounts, you can find information on the MySQL access control system and account management in Section 6.2, “The MySQL Access Privilege System”, and Section 6.3, “MySQL User Account Management”.

2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory

After installing MySQL, you must initialize the data directory, including the tables in the mysql system database. For some MySQL installation methods, data directory initialization may be done automatically, as described in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”. For other installation methods, including installation from generic binary and source distributions, you must initialize the data directory yourself.

This section describes how to initialize the data directory on Unix and Unix-like systems. (For Windows, see Section 2.3.9, “Windows Postinstallation Procedures”.) For some suggested commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of the mysql login account. This assumes that such an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist, or substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running the server. For information about creating the account, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

  1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented here by BASEDIR:

    shell> cd BASEDIR
    

    BASEDIR is likely to be something like /usr/local/mysql or /usr/local. The following steps assume that you have changed location to this directory.

    You will find several files and subdirectories in the BASEDIR directory. The most important for installation purposes are the bin and scripts subdirectories, which contain the server as well as client and utility programs.

  2. If necessary, ensure that the distribution contents are accessible to mysql. If you installed the distribution as mysql, no further action is required. If you installed the distribution as root, its contents will be owned by root. Change its ownership to mysql by executing the following commands as root in the installation directory. The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the mysql user. The second changes the group attribute to the mysql group.

    shell> chown -R mysql .
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
    
  3. If necessary, initialize the data directory, including the mysql database containing the initial MySQL grant tables that determine how users are permitted to connect to the server.

    Typically, data directory initialization need be done only the first time you install MySQL. If you are upgrading an existing installation, you should run mysql_upgrade instead (see Section 4.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”). However, the command that initializes the data directory does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances.

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    

    It is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this if you run mysql_install_db as root, include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, you should execute the program while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

    The mysql_install_db command creates the server's data directory. Under the data directory, it creates directories for the mysql database that holds the grant tables and the test database that you can use to test MySQL. The program also creates privilege table entries for the initial account or accounts. test_. For a complete listing and description of the grant tables, see Section 6.2, “The MySQL Access Privilege System”.

    It might be necessary to specify other options such as --basedir or --datadir if mysql_install_db does not identify the correct locations for the installation directory or data directory. For example:

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql \
             --basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql \
             --datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data
    

    If you do not want to have the test database, you can remove it after starting the server, using the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

    If you have trouble with mysql_install_db at this point, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Problems Running mysql_install_db”.

  4. After initializing the data directory, you can establish the final installation ownership settings. To leave the installation owned by mysql, no action is required here. Otherwise, most of the MySQL installation can be owned by root if you like. The exception is that the data directory must be owned by mysql. To accomplish this, run the following commands as root in the installation directory. For some distribution types, the data directory might be named var rather than data; adjust the second command accordingly.

    shell> chown -R root .
    shell> chown -R mysql data
    

    If the plugin directory (the directory named by the plugin_dir system variable) is writable by the server, it may be possible for a user to write executable code to a file in the directory using SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE. This can be prevented by making the plugin directory read only to the server or by setting the secure_file_priv system variable at server startup to a directory where SELECT writes can be performed safely.

  5. If you installed MySQL using a source distribution, you may want to optionally copy one of the provided configuration files from the support-files directory into your /etc directory. There are different sample configuration files for different use cases, server types, and CPU and RAM configurations. To use one of these standard files, copy it to /etc/my.cnf, or /etc/mysql/my.cnf and edit and check the configuration before starting your MySQL server for the first time.

    You can also create my.cnf yourself and place into it the options the server should use at startup. See Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

    If you do not copy one of the standard configuration files or create your own, the MySQL server starts with its default settings.

  6. If you want MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, see Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

Data directory initialization creates time zone tables in the mysql database but does not populate them. To do so, use the instructions in Section 10.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

2.10.1.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db

The purpose of the mysql_install_db program is to initialize the data directory, including the tables in the mysql system database. It does not overwrite existing MySQL privilege tables, and it does not affect any other data.

To re-create your privilege tables, first stop the mysqld server if it is running. Then rename the mysql directory under the data directory to save it, and run mysql_install_db. Suppose that your current directory is the MySQL installation directory and that mysql_install_db is located in the bin directory and the data directory is named data. To rename the mysql database and re-run mysql_install_db, use these commands.

shell> mv data/mysql data/mysql.old
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

When you run mysql_install_db, you might encounter the following problems:

  • mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables

    You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:

    Starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
    mysqld ended
    

    In this case, you should examine the error log file very carefully. The log should be located in the directory XXXXXX named by the error message and should indicate why mysqld did not start. If you do not understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report. See Section 1.6, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

  • There is a mysqld process running

    This indicates that the server is running, in which case the grant tables have probably been created already. If so, there is no need to run mysql_install_db at all because it needs to be run only once, when you first install MySQL.

  • Installing a second mysqld server does not work when one server is running

    This can happen when you have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different location. For example, you might have a production installation, but you want to create a second installation for testing purposes. Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run a second server is that it tries to use a network interface that is in use by the first server. In this case, you should see one of the following error messages:

    Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port:
    Address already in use
    Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...
    

    For instructions on setting up multiple servers, see Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

  • You do not have write access to the /tmp directory

    If you do not have write access to create temporary files or a Unix socket file in the default location (the /tmp directory) or the TMPDIR environment variable, if it has been set, an error occurs when you run mysql_install_db or the mysqld server.

    You can specify different locations for the temporary directory and Unix socket file by executing these commands prior to starting mysql_install_db or mysqld, where some_tmp_dir is the full path name to some directory for which you have write permission:

    shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
    shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysql.sock
    shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
    

    Then you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
    

    If mysql_install_db is located in the scripts directory, modify the first command to scripts/mysql_install_db.

    See Section B.5.3.6, “How to Protect or Change the MySQL Unix Socket File”, and Section 4.9, “MySQL Program Environment Variables”.

There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db program provided in the MySQL distribution:

  • If you want the initial privileges to be different from the standard defaults, use account-management statements such as CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE to change the privileges after the grant tables have been set up. In other words, run mysql_install_db, and then use mysql -u root mysql to connect to the server as the MySQL root user so that you can issue the necessary statements. (See Section 13.7.1, “Account Management Statements”.)

    To install MySQL on several machines with the same privileges, put the CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE statements in a file and execute the file as a script using mysql after running mysql_install_db. For example:

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> bin/mysql -u root < your_script_file
    

    This enables you to avoid issuing the statements manually on each machine.

  • It is possible to re-create the grant tables completely after they have previously been created. You might want to do this if you are just learning how to use CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE and have made so many modifications after running mysql_install_db that you want to wipe out the tables and start over.

    To re-create the grant tables, stop the server if it is running and remove the mysql database directory. Then run mysql_install_db again.

2.10.2 Starting the Server

This section describes how start the server on Unix and Unix-like systems. (For Windows, see Section 2.3.7.4, “Starting the Server for the First Time”.) For some suggested commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

Start the MySQL server like this:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this if you run mysqld_safe as root, include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, execute the program while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

For further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user, see Section 6.1.5, “How to Run MySQL as a Normal User”.

If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, look for information in the error log (which by default is the host_name.err file in the data directory).

If the server is unable to access the data directory it starts or read the grant tables in the mysql database, it writes a message to its error log. Such problems can occur if you neglected to create the grant tables by initializing the data directory before proceeding to this step, or if you ran the command that initializes the data directory without the --user option. Remove the data directory and run the command with the --user option.

If you have other problems starting the server, see Section 2.10.2.1, “Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server”. For more information about mysqld_safe, see Section 4.3.2, “mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script”.

You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. See Section 4.6.13, “mysql_setpermission — Interactively Set Permissions in Grant Tables”. For Perl module installation instructions, see Section 2.12, “Perl Installation Notes”.

If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some nonstandard location, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the bin/mysqlaccess script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:

$MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable

Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, a Broken pipe error will occur when you run mysqlaccess.

2.10.2.1 Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server

This section provides troubleshooting suggestions for problems starting the server. For additional suggestions for Windows systems, see Section 2.3.8, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

If you have problems starting the server, here are some things to try:

  • Check the error log to see why the server does not start.

  • Specify any special options needed by the storage engines you are using.

  • Make sure that the server knows where to find the data directory.

  • Make sure that the server can access the data directory. The ownership and permissions of the data directory and its contents must be set such that the server can read and modify them.

  • Verify that the network interfaces the server wants to use are available.

Some storage engines have options that control their behavior. You can create a my.cnf file and specify startup options for the engines that you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, NDB), be sure that you have them configured the way you want before starting the server:

If you are using InnoDB tables, see Section 14.9, “InnoDB Configuration”.

Storage engines will use default option values if you specify none, but it is recommended that you review the available options and specify explicit values for those for which the defaults are not appropriate for your installation.

When the mysqld server starts, it changes location to the data directory. This is where it expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. The server also writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.

The data directory location is hardwired in when the server is compiled. This is where the server looks for the data directory by default. If the data directory is located somewhere else on your system, the server will not work properly. You can determine what the default path settings are by invoking mysqld with the --verbose and --help options.

If the default locations do not match the MySQL installation layout on your system, you can override them by specifying options to mysqld or mysqld_safe on the command line or in an option file.

To specify the location of the data directory explicitly, use the --datadir option. However, normally you can tell mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is installed and it looks for the data directory there. You can do this with the --basedir option.

To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location into the directory where mysqld is installed and then run the following command, it shows the effect of starting the server with a base directory of /usr/local:

shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help

You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but --verbose and --help must be the last options.

Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and --help.

If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

shell> mysqladmin variables

Or:

shell> mysqladmin -h host_name variables

host_name is the name of the MySQL server host.

If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means that the privileges of the data directory or its contents do not permit server access. In this case, you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this raises security issues and should be avoided.

Change location into the data directory and check the ownership of the data directory and its contents to make sure the server has access. For example, if the data directory is /usr/local/mysql/var, use this command:

shell> ls -la /usr/local/mysql/var

If the data directory or its files or subdirectories are not owned by the login account that you use for running the server, change their ownership to that account. If the account is named mysql, use these commands:

shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var

Even with correct ownership, MySQL might fail to start up if there is other security software running on your system that manages application access to various parts of the file system. In this case, reconfigure that software to enable mysqld to access the directories it uses during normal operation.

If the server fails to start up correctly, check the error log. Log files are located in the data directory (typically C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data on Windows, /usr/local/mysql/data for a Unix/Linux binary distribution, and /usr/local/var for a Unix/Linux source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form host_name.err and host_name.log, where host_name is the name of your server host. Then examine the last few lines of these files. You can use tail to display them:

shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log

The error log should contain information that indicates why the server could not start.

If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another mysqld server) is using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying to use:

Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...

Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.)

If no other server is running, try to execute the command telnet your_host_name tcp_ip_port_number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of times. If you do not get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying to use. You will need to track down what program this is and disable it, or else tell mysqld to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, you will also need to specify the port number for client programs when connecting to the server using TCP/IP.

Another reason the port might be inaccessible is that you have a firewall running that blocks connections to it. If so, modify the firewall settings to permit access to the port.

If the server starts but you cannot connect to it, you should make sure that you have an entry in /etc/hosts that looks like this:

127.0.0.1       localhost

If you cannot get mysqld to start, you can try to make a trace file to find the problem by using the --debug option. See Section 24.5.3, “The DBUG Package”.

2.10.3 Testing the Server

After the data directory is initialized and you have started the server, perform some simple tests to make sure that it works satisfactorily. This section assumes that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your shell (command interpreter) to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 4.2.10, “Setting Environment Variables”.

Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:

shell> bin/mysqladmin version
shell> bin/mysqladmin variables

If you cannot connect to the server, specify a -u root option to connect as root. If you have assigned a password for the root account already, you'll also need to specify -p on the command line and enter the password when prompted. For example:

shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root -p version
Enter password: (enter root password here)

The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:

shell> bin/mysqladmin version
mysqladmin  Ver 14.12 Distrib 5.5.58, for pc-linux-gnu on i686
...

Server version          5.5.58
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Uptime:                 14 days 5 hours 5 min 21 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 366  Slow queries: 0
Opens: 0  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 19
Queries per second avg: 0.000

To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.

Verify that you can shut down the server (include a -p option if the root account has a password already):

shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown

Verify that you can start the server again. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

If mysqld_safe fails, see Section 2.10.2.1, “Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server”.

Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

shell> bin/mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| test               |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include the minimum of mysql and information_schema.

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| host                      |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| servers                   |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | mysql_native_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+

At this point, your server is running and you can access it. To tighten security if you have not yet assigned passwords to the initial account or accounts, follow the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

For more information about mysql, mysqladmin, and mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool”, Section 4.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”, and Section 4.5.6, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts

The MySQL installation process involves initializing the data directory, including the mysql database containing the grant tables that define MySQL accounts. For details, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

This section describes how to assign passwords to the initial accounts created during the MySQL installation procedure, if you have not already done so.

The mysql.user grant table defines the initial MySQL user accounts and their access privileges:

  • Some accounts have the user name root. These are superuser accounts that have all privileges and can do anything. If these root accounts have empty passwords, anyone can connect to the MySQL server as root without a password and be granted all privileges.

    • On Windows, root accounts are created that permit connections from the local host only. Connections can be made by specifying the host name localhost, the IP address 127.0.0.1, or the IPv6 address ::1. If the user selects the Enable root access from remote machines option during installation, the Windows installer creates another root account that permits connections from any host.

    • On Unix, each root account permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying the host name localhost, the IP address 127.0.0.1, the IPv6 address ::1, or the actual host name or IP address.

    An attempt to connect to the host 127.0.0.1 normally resolves to the localhost account. However, this fails if the server is run with the --skip-name-resolve option, so the 127.0.0.1 account is useful in that case. The ::1 account is used for IPv6 connections.

  • If accounts for anonymous users were created, these have an empty user name. The anonymous accounts have no password, so anyone can use them to connect to the MySQL server.

    • On Windows, there is one anonymous account that permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying a host name of localhost.

    • On Unix, each anonymous account permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying a host name of localhost for one of the accounts, or the actual host name or IP address for the other.

    • The 'root'@'localhost' account also has a row in the mysql.proxies_priv table that enables granting the PROXY privilege for ''@'', that is, for all users and all hosts. This enables root to set up proxy users, as well as to delegate to other accounts the authority to set up proxy users. See Section 6.3.7, “Proxy Users”.

To display which accounts exist in the mysql.user table and check whether their passwords are empty, use the following statement:

mysql> SELECT User, Host, Password FROM mysql.user;
+------+--------------------+----------+
| User | Host               | Password |
+------+--------------------+----------+
| root | localhost          |          |
| root | myhost.example.com |          |
| root | 127.0.0.1          |          |
| root | ::1                |          |
|      | localhost          |          |
|      | myhost.example.com |          |
+------+--------------------+----------+

This output indicates that there are several root and anonymous-user accounts, none of which have passwords. The output might differ on your system, but the presence of accounts with empty passwords means that your MySQL installation is unprotected until you do something about it:

  • Assign a password to each MySQL root account that does not have one.

  • To prevent clients from connecting as anonymous users without a password, either assign a password to each anonymous account or remove the accounts.

In addition, the mysql.db table contains rows that permit all accounts to access the test database and other databases with names that start with test_. This is true even for accounts that otherwise have no special privileges such as the default anonymous accounts. This is convenient for testing but inadvisable on production servers. Administrators who want database access restricted only to accounts that have permissions granted explicitly for that purpose should remove these mysql.db table rows.

The following instructions describe how to set up passwords for the initial MySQL accounts, first for the root accounts, then for the anonymous accounts. The instructions also cover how to remove anonymous accounts, should you prefer not to permit anonymous access at all, and describe how to remove permissive access to test databases. Replace new_password in the examples with the password that you want to use. Replace host_name with the name of the server host. You can determine this name from the output of the preceding SELECT statement. For the output shown, host_name is myhost.example.com.

Note

For additional information about setting passwords, see Section 6.3.5, “Assigning Account Passwords”. If you forget your root password after setting it, see Section B.5.3.2, “How to Reset the Root Password”.

To set up additional accounts, see Section 6.3.2, “Adding User Accounts”.

You might want to defer setting the passwords until later, to avoid the need to specify them while you perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set them before using your installation for production purposes.

Note

On Windows, you can also perform the process described in this section using the Configuration Wizard (see Section 2.3.6.11, “The Security Options Dialog”). On all platforms, the MySQL distribution includes mysql_secure_installation, a command-line utility that automates much of the process of securing a MySQL installation. MySQL Workbench is available on all platforms, and also offers the ability to manage user accounts (see Chapter 26, MySQL Workbench ).

Assigning root Account Passwords

A root account password can be set several ways. The following discussion demonstrates three methods:

To assign passwords using SET PASSWORD, connect to the server as root and issue a SET PASSWORD statement for each root account listed in the mysql.user table.

For Windows, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'127.0.0.1' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'::1' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'%' = PASSWORD('new_password');

The last statement is unnecessary if the mysql.user table has no root account with a host value of %.

For Unix, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'127.0.0.1' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'::1' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'host_name' = PASSWORD('new_password');

You can also use a single statement that assigns a password to all root accounts by using UPDATE to modify the mysql.user table directly. This method works on any platform:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('new_password')
    ->     WHERE User = 'root';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the password change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

To assign passwords to the root accounts using mysqladmin, execute the following commands:

shell> mysqladmin -u root password "new_password"
shell> mysqladmin -u root -h host_name password "new_password"

Those commands apply both to Windows and to Unix. The double quotation marks around the password are not always necessary, but you should use them if the password contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter.

The mysqladmin method of setting the root account passwords does not work for the 'root'@'127.0.0.1' or 'root'@'::1' account. Use the SET PASSWORD method shown earlier.

After the root passwords have been set, you must supply the appropriate password whenever you connect as root to the server. For example, to shut down the server with mysqladmin, use this command:

shell> mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
Enter password: (enter root password here)

The mysql commands in the following instructions include a -p option based on the assumption that you have assigned the root account passwords using the preceding instructions and must specify that password when connecting to the server.

Assigning Anonymous Account Passwords

To assign passwords to the anonymous accounts, connect to the server as root, then use either SET PASSWORD or UPDATE.

To use SET PASSWORD on Windows, do this:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('new_password');

To use SET PASSWORD on Unix, do this:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('new_password');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'host_name' = PASSWORD('new_password');

To set the anonymous-user account passwords with a single UPDATE statement, do this (on any platform):

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('new_password')
    ->     WHERE User = '';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the password change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

Removing Anonymous Accounts

If you prefer to remove any anonymous accounts rather than assigning them passwords, do so as follows on Windows:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DROP USER ''@'localhost';

On Unix, remove the anonymous accounts like this:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DROP USER ''@'localhost';
mysql> DROP USER ''@'host_name';

Securing Test Databases

By default, the mysql.db table contains rows that permit access by any user to the test database and other databases with names that start with test_. (These rows have an empty User column value, which for access-checking purposes matches any user name.) This means that such databases can be used even by accounts that otherwise possess no privileges. If you want to remove any-user access to test databases, do so as follows:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.db WHERE Db LIKE 'test%';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the privilege change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

With the preceding change, only users who have global database privileges or privileges granted explicitly for the test database can use it. However, if you prefer that the database not exist at all, drop it:

mysql> DROP DATABASE test;

2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

This section discusses methods for starting and stopping the MySQL server.

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

The mysqld_safe and mysql.server scripts, Solaris SMF, and the OS X Startup Item (or MySQL Preference Pane) can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. mysql.server and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.

The following table shows which option groups the server and startup scripts read from option files.

Table 2.15 MySQL Startup Scripts and Supported Server Option Groups

ScriptOption Groups
mysqld[mysqld], [server], [mysqld-major_version]
mysqld_safe[mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe]
mysql.server[mysqld], [mysql.server], [server]

[mysqld-major_version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-5.1] and [mysqld-5.5] are read by servers having versions 5.1.x, 5.5.x, and so forth. This feature can be used to specify options that can be read only by servers within a given release series.

For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. However, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead.

For more information on MySQL configuration files and their structure and contents, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

2.11 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL

This section describes the steps to upgrade or downgrade a MySQL installation.

Upgrading is a common procedure, as you pick up bug fixes within the same MySQL release series or significant features between major MySQL releases. You perform this procedure first on some test systems to make sure everything works smoothly, and then on the production systems.

Downgrading is less common. Typically, you undo an upgrade because of some compatibility or performance issue that occurs on a production system, and was not uncovered during initial upgrade verification on the test systems. As with the upgrade procedure, perform and verify the downgrade procedure on some test systems first, before using it on a production system.

2.11.1 Upgrading MySQL

This section describes how to upgrade to a new MySQL version.

Note

In the following discussion, MySQL commands that must be run using a MySQL account with administrative privileges include -u root on the command line to specify the MySQL root user. Commands that require a password for root also include a -p option. Because -p is followed by no option value, such commands prompt for the password. Type the password when prompted and press Enter.

SQL statements can be executed using the mysql command-line client (connect as root to ensure that you have the necessary privileges).

Upgrade Methods

Supported downgrade methods include:

  • In-Place Upgrade: Involves shutting down the old MySQL version, replacing the old MySQL binaries or packages with the new ones, restarting MySQL on the existing data directory, and running mysql_upgrade.

  • Logical Upgrade: Involves exporting existing data from the old MySQL version using mysqldump, installing the new MySQL version, loading the dump file into the new MySQL version, and running mysql_upgrade.

    Note

    MySQL recommends a mysqldump upgrade when upgrading from a previous release. For example, use this method when upgrading from 5.1 to 5.5.

For in-place and logical upgrade procedures, see Performing an In-Place Upgrade, and Performing a Logical Upgrade.

If you run MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.3.10, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”.

Upgrade Paths

  • Upgrade is only supported between General Availability (GA) releases.

  • Upgrade from MySQL 5.1 to 5.5 is supported. Upgrading to the latest release is recommended before upgrading to the next version. For example, upgrade to the latest MySQL 5.1 release before upgrading to MySQL 5.5.

  • Upgrade that skips versions is not supported. For example, upgrading directly from MySQL 5.0 to 5.5 is not supported.

  • Upgrade within a release series is supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 5.5.x to 5.5.y is supported. Skipping a release is also supported. For example, upgrading from MySQL 5.5.x to 5.5.z is supported.

Before You Begin

Before upgrading, review the following information and perform the recommended steps:

  • Before upgrading, protect your data by creating a backup of your current databases and log files. The backup should include the mysql system database, which contains the MySQL system tables. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  • Review the Release Notes which provide information about features that are new in the MySQL 5.5 or differ from those found in earlier MySQL releases. Some of these changes may result in incompatibilities.

    For a description of MySQL server features that have been removed in MySQL 5.5, see Features Removed in MySQL 5.5. An upgrade requires changes with respect to those features if you use any of them.

  • Review Section 2.11.1.1, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.5”. This section describes changes that may require action before or after upgrading.

  • If you use replication, review Section 17.4.3, “Upgrading a Replication Setup”.

  • If you use XA transactions with InnoDB, run XA RECOVER before upgrading to check for uncommitted XA transactions. If results are returned, either commit or rollback the XA transactions by issuing an XA COMMIT or XA ROLLBACK statement.

  • If your MySQL installation contains a large amount of data that might take a long time to convert after an in-place upgrade, you might find it useful to create a dummy database instance for assessing what conversions might be needed and the work involved to perform them. Make a copy of your MySQL instance that contains a full copy of the mysql database, plus all other databases without data. Run your upgrade procedure on this dummy instance to see what actions might be needed so that you can better evaluate the work involved when performing actual data conversion on your original database instance.

  • Rebuilding and reinstalling MySQL language interfaces is recommended whenever you install or upgrade to a new release of MySQL. This applies to MySQL interfaces such as PHP mysql extensions, the Perl DBD::mysql module, and the Python MySQLdb module.

Performing an In-Place Upgrade

This section describes how to perform an in-place upgrade. Review Before you Begin before proceeding.

Note

If you upgrade an installation originally produced by installing multiple RPM packages, upgrade all the packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

To perform an in-place upgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.1.1, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.5” for steps to be performed before upgrading.

  2. If you use InnoDB, configure MySQL to perform a slow shutdown by setting innodb_fast_shutdown to 0. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --execute="SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown=0"
    

    With a slow shutdown, InnoDB performs a full purge and change buffer merge before shutting down, which ensures that data files are fully prepared in case of file format differences between releases.

  3. Shut down the old MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Upgrade the MySQL binary installation or packages. If upgrading a binary installation, unpack the new MySQL binary distribution package. See Obtain and Unpack the Distribution. For package-based installations, replace the old packages with the new ones.

  5. Start the MySQL 5.5 server, using the existing data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    
  6. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    

    mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the mysql system database so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities.

    Note

    mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

  7. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    

Performing a Logical Upgrade

This section describes how to perform a logical upgrade. Review Before you Begin before proceeding.

To perform a logical upgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.1.1, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.5” for steps to be performed before upgrading.

  2. Export your existing data from the previous MySQL version:

    mysqldump -u root -p
      --add-drop-table --routines --events
      --all-databases --force > data-for-upgrade.sql
    
    Note

    Use the --routines and --events options with mysqldump (as shown above) if your databases include stored programs. The --all-databases option includes all databases in the dump, including the mysql database that holds the system tables.

  3. Shut down the old MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Install MySQL 5.5. For installation instructions, see Chapter 2, Installing and Upgrading MySQL.

  5. Initialize a new data directory, as described at Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”. For example:

    scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/5.5-datadir
    
  6. Start the MySQL 5.5 server, using the new data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/5.5-datadir
    
  7. Load the previously created dump file into the new MySQL server. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --force < data-for-upgrade.sql
    
  8. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    

    mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the mysql system database so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities.

    Note

    mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

  9. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/5.5-datadir
    

Upgrade Troubleshooting

  • If problems occur, such as that the new mysqld server does not start or that you cannot connect without a password, verify that you do not have an old my.cnf file from your previous installation. You can check this with the --print-defaults option (for example, mysqld --print-defaults). If this command displays anything other than the program name, you have an active my.cnf file that affects server or client operation.

  • If, after an upgrade, you experience problems with compiled client programs, such as Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used old header or library files when compiling your programs. In this case, check the date for your mysql.h file and libmysqlclient.a library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, recompile your programs with the new headers and libraries. Recompilation might also be necessary for programs compiled against the shared client library if the library major version number has changed (for example, from libmysqlclient.so.15 to libmysqlclient.so.16).

  • If you have created a user-defined function (UDF) with a given name and upgrade MySQL to a version that implements a new built-in function with the same name, the UDF becomes inaccessible. To correct this, use DROP FUNCTION to drop the UDF, and then use CREATE FUNCTION to re-create the UDF with a different nonconflicting name. The same is true if the new version of MySQL implements a built-in function with the same name as an existing stored function. See Section 9.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”, for the rules describing how the server interprets references to different kinds of functions.

2.11.1.1 Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.5

Before upgrading to MySQL 5.5, review the changes described in this section to identify upgrade issues that apply to your current MySQL installation and applications.

Note

In addition to the changes outlined in this section, review the Release Notes and other important information outlined in Before You Begin.

Changes marked as either Known issue or Incompatible change are incompatibilities with earlier versions of MySQL, and may require your attention before you upgrade. Our aim is to avoid these changes, but occasionally they are necessary to correct problems that would be worse than an incompatibility between releases. If any upgrade issue applicable to your installation involves an incompatibility that requires special handling, follow the instructions given in the incompatibility description. Sometimes this involves dumping and reloading tables, or use of a statement such as CHECK TABLE or REPAIR TABLE.

For dump and reload instructions, see Section 2.11.3, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”. Any procedure that involves REPAIR TABLE with the USE_FRM option must be done before upgrading. Use of this statement with a version of MySQL different from the one used to create the table (that is, using it after upgrading) may damage the table. See Section 13.7.2.5, “REPAIR TABLE Syntax”.

Configuration Changes
  • Incompatible change: The InnoDB Plugin is included in MySQL 5.5 releases. It becomes the built-in version of InnoDB in MySQL Server, replacing the version previously included as the built-in InnoDB engine. InnoDB Plugin is also available in MySQL 5.1 as of 5.1.38, but it is an optional storage engine that must be enabled explicitly using two server options:

    [mysqld]
    ignore-builtin-innodb
    plugin-load=innodb=ha_innodb_plugin.so
    

    If you were using InnoDB Plugin in MySQL 5.1 by means of those options, you must remove them after an upgrade to 5.5 or the server will fail to start.

    In addition, in InnoDB Plugin, the innodb_file_io_threads system variable has been removed and replaced with innodb_read_io_threads and innodb_write_io_threads. If you upgrade from MySQL 5.1 to MySQL 5.5 and previously explicitly set innodb_file_io_threads at server startup, you must change your configuration. Either remove any reference to innodb_file_io_threads or replace it with references to innodb_read_io_threads and innodb_write_io_threads.

  • Incompatible change: In MySQL 5.5, the server includes a plugin services interface that complements the plugin API. The services interface enables server functionality to be exposed as a service that plugins can access through a function-call interface. The libmysqlservices library provides access to the available services and dynamic plugins now must be linked against this library (use the -lmysqlservices flag). For an example showing how to configure for CMake, see Section 24.3, “MySQL Services for Plugins”.

Server Changes
  • On Linux systems, the libaio library may be needed. Install it first, if it is not already present on your system.

  • Known issue: As of MySQL 5.5.32, for new installations, the url columns in the mysql database help tables are now created as type TEXT to accommodate longer URLs. For upgrades, mysql_upgrade does not update the columns. Modify them manually using these statements:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.help_category MODIFY url TEXT NOT NULL;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.help_topic MODIFY url TEXT NOT NULL;
    
  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.3, due to work done for Bug #989, FLUSH TABLES is not permitted when there is an active LOCK TABLES ... READ. To provide a workaround for this restriction, FLUSH TABLES has a new variant, FLUSH TABLES tbl_list WITH READ LOCK, that enables tables to be flushed and locked in a single operation. As a result of this change, applications that previously used this statement sequence to lock and flush tables will fail:

    LOCK TABLES tbl_list READ;
    FLUSH TABLES tbl_list;
    

    Such applications should now use this statement instead:

    FLUSH TABLES tbl_list WITH READ LOCK;
    
  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.7, the server requires that a new grant table, proxies_priv, be present in the mysql database. If you are upgrading to 5.5.7 from a previous MySQL release rather than performing a new installation, the server will find that this table is missing and exit during startup with the following message:

    Table 'mysql.proxies_priv' doesn't exist
    

    To create the proxies_priv table, start the server with the --skip-grant-tables option to cause it to skip the normal grant table checks, then run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysqld --skip-grant-tables &
    mysql_upgrade
    

    Then stop the server and restart it normally.

    You can specify other options on the mysqld command line if necessary. Alternatively, if your installation is configured so that the server normally reads options from an option file, use the --defaults-file option to specify the file (enter each command on a single line):

    mysqld --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf
      --skip-grant-tables &
    mysql_upgrade
    

    With the --skip-grant-tables option, the server does no password or privilege checking, so any client can connect and effectively have all privileges. For additional security, use the --skip-networking option as well to prevent remote clients from connecting.

    Note

    This problem is fixed in MySQL 5.5.8; the server treats a missing proxies_priv table as equivalent to an empty table. However, after starting the server, you should still run mysql_upgrade to create the table.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.7, InnoDB always uses the fast truncation technique, equivalent to DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE. It no longer performs a row-by-row delete for tables with parent-child foreign key relationships. TRUNCATE TABLE returns an error for such tables. Modify your SQL to issue DELETE FROM table_name for such tables instead.

  • Incompatible change: Prior to MySQL 5.5.7, if you flushed the logs using FLUSH LOGS or mysqladmin flush-logs and mysqld was writing the error log to a file (for example, if it was started with the --log-error option), it renames the current log file with the suffix -old, then created a new empty log file. This had the problem that a second log-flushing operation thus caused the original error log file to be lost unless you saved it under a different name. For example, you could use the following commands to save the file:

    mysqladmin flush-logs
    mv host_name.err-old backup-directory
    

    To avoid the preceding file-loss problem, no renaming occurs as of MySQL 5.5.7; the server merely closes and reopens the log file. To rename the file, you can do so manually before flushing. Then flushing the logs reopens a new file with the original file name. For example, you can rename the file and create a new one using the following commands:

    mv host_name.err host_name.err-old
    mysqladmin flush-logs
    mv host_name.err-old backup-directory
    
  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.6, handling of CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... SELECT statements has been changed for the case that the destination table already exists:

    • Previously, for CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... SELECT, MySQL produced a warning that the table exists, but inserted the rows and wrote the statement to the binary log anyway. By contrast, CREATE TABLE ... SELECT (without IF NOT EXISTS) failed with an error, but MySQL inserted no rows and did not write the statement to the binary log.

    • MySQL now handles both statements the same way when the destination table exists, in that neither statement inserts rows or is written to the binary log. The difference between them is that MySQL produces a warning when IF NOT EXISTS is present and an error when it is not.

    This change in handling of IF NOT EXISTS results in an incompatibility for statement-based replication from a MySQL 5.1 master with the original behavior and a MySQL 5.5 slave with the new behavior. Suppose that CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... SELECT is executed on the master and the destination table exists. The result is that rows are inserted on the master but not on the slave. (Row-based replication does not have this problem.)

    To address this issue, statement-based binary logging for CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... SELECT is changed in MySQL 5.1 as of 5.1.51:

    This change provides forward compatibility for statement-based replication from MySQL 5.1 to 5.5 because when the destination table exists, the rows will be inserted on both the master and slave. To take advantage of this compatibility measure, the 5.1 server must be at least 5.1.51 and the 5.5 server must be at least 5.5.6.

    To upgrade an existing 5.1-to-5.5 replication scenario, upgrade the master first to 5.1.51 or higher. Note that this differs from the usual replication upgrade advice of upgrading the slave first.

    A workaround for applications that wish to achieve the original effect (rows inserted regardless of whether the destination table exists) is to use CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS and INSERT ... SELECT statements rather than CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... SELECT statements.

    Along with the change just described, the following related change was made: Previously, if an existing view was named as the destination table for CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... SELECT, rows were inserted into the underlying base table and the statement was written to the binary log. As of MySQL 5.1.51 and 5.5.6, nothing is inserted or logged.

  • Incompatible change: Prior to MySQL 5.5.6, if the server was started with character_set_server set to utf16, it crashed during full-text stopword initialization. Now the stopword file is loaded and searched using latin1 if character_set_server is ucs2, utf16, or utf32. If any table was created with FULLTEXT indexes while the server character set was ucs2, utf16, or utf32, it should be repaired using this statement:

    REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK;
    
  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.5, all numeric operators and functions on integer, floating-point and DECIMAL values throw an out of range error (ER_DATA_OUT_OF_RANGE) rather than returning an incorrect value or NULL, when the result is out of the supported range for the corresponding data type. See Section 11.2.6, “Out-of-Range and Overflow Handling”.

  • Incompatible change: In very old versions of MySQL (prior to 4.1), the TIMESTAMP data type supported a display width, which was silently ignored beginning with MySQL 4.1. This is deprecated in MySQL 5.1, and removed altogether in MySQL 5.5. These changes in behavior can lead to two problem scenarios when trying to use TIMESTAMP(N) columns with a MySQL 5.5 or later server:

    • When importing a dump file (for example, one created using mysqldump) created in a MySQL 5.0 or earlier server into a server from a newer release series, a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement containing TIMESTAMP(N) causes the import to fail with a syntax error.

      To fix this problem, edit the dump file in a text editor to replace any instances of TIMESTAMP(N) with TIMESTAMP prior to importing the file. Be sure to use a plain text editor for this, and not a word processor; otherwise, the result is almost certain to be unusable for importing into the MySQL server.

    • When trying replicate any CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement containing TIMESTAMP(N) from a master MySQL server that supports the TIMESTAMP(N) syntax to a MySQL 5.5.3 or higher slave, the statement causes replication to fail. Similarly, when you try to restore from a binary log written by a server that supports TIMESTAMP(N) to a MySQL 5.5.3 or higher server, any CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement containing TIMESTAMP(N) causes the backup to fail. This holds true regardless of the logging format.

      It may be possible to fix such issues using a hex editor, by replacing any width arguments used with TIMESTAMP, and the parentheses containing them, with space characters (hexadecimal 20). Be sure to use a programmer's binary hex editor and not a regular text editor or word processor for this; otherwise, the result is almost certain to be a corrupted binary log file. To guard against accidental corruption of the binary log, you should always work on a copy of the file rather than the original.

    You should try to handle potential issues of these types proactively by updating with ALTER TABLE any TIMESTAMP(N) columns in your databases so that they use TIMESTAMP instead, before performing any upgrades.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.3, the Unicode implementation has been extended to provide support for supplementary characters that lie outside the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). Noteworthy features:

    • utf16 and utf32 character sets have been added. These correspond to the UTF-16 and UTF-32 encodings of the Unicode character set, and they both support supplementary characters.

    • The utf8mb4 character set has been added. This is similar to utf8, but its encoding allows up to four bytes per character to enable support for supplementary characters.

    • The ucs2 character set is essentially unchanged except for the inclusion of some newer BMP characters.

    In most respects, upgrading to MySQL 5.5 should present few problems with regard to Unicode usage, although there are some potential areas of incompatibility. These are the primary areas of concern:

    • For the variable-length character data types (VARCHAR and the TEXT types), the maximum length in characters is less for utf8mb4 columns than for utf8 columns.

    • For all character data types (CHAR, VARCHAR, and the TEXT types), the maximum number of characters that can be indexed is less for utf8mb4 columns than for utf8 columns.

    Consequently, if you want to upgrade tables from utf8 to utf8mb4 to take advantage of supplementary-character support, it may be necessary to change some column or index definitions.

    For additional details about the new Unicode character sets and potential incompatibilities, see Section 10.1.9, “Unicode Support”, and Section 10.1.9.7, “Converting Between 3-Byte and 4-Byte Unicode Character Sets”.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.5.3, the server includes dtoa, a library for conversion between strings and numbers by David M. Gay. In MySQL, this library provides the basis for improved conversion between string or DECIMAL values and approximate-value (FLOAT or DOUBLE) numbers.

    Because the conversions produced by this library differ in some cases from previous results, the potential exists for incompatibilities in applications that rely on previous results. For example, applications that depend on a specific exact result from previous conversions might need adjustment to accommodate additional precision.

    For additional information about the properties of dtoa conversions, see Section 12.2, “Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation”.

  • Incompatible change: In MySQL 5.5, several changes were made regarding the language and character set of error messages:

    • The --language option for specifying the directory for the error message file is now deprecated. The new lc_messages_dir and lc_messages system variables should be used instead, and the server treats --language as an alias for lc_messages_dir.

    • The language system variable has been removed and replaced with the new lc_messages_dir and lc_messages system variables. lc_messages_dir has only a global value and is read only. lc_messages has global and session values and can be modified at runtime, so the error message language can be changed while the server is running, and individual clients each can have a different error message language by changing their session lc_messages value to a different locale name.

    • Error messages previously were constructed in a mix of character sets. This issue is resolved by constructing error messages internally within the server using UTF-8 and returning them to the client in the character set specified by the character_set_results system variable. The content of error messages therefore may in some cases differ from the messages returned previously.

    For more information, see Section 10.2, “Setting the Error Message Language”, and Section 10.1.6, “Error Message Character Set”.

  • Incompatible change: MySQL 5.5 implements new functions used to calculate row placement for tables partitioned by KEY and LINEAR KEY. Tables that were created using KEY or LINEAR KEY partitioning in MySQL 5.1 can be upgraded in MySQL 5.5.31 and later using ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY ALGORITHM=2 [LINEAR] KEY (...). (Bug #14521864, Bug #66462)

SQL Changes
  • Incompatible change: Previously, the parser accepted an INTO clause in nested SELECT statements, which is invalid because such statements must return their results to the outer context. As of MySQL 5.5.3, this syntax is no longer permitted and statements that use it must be changed.

  • Incompatible change: In MySQL 5.5.3, several changes were made to alias resolution in multiple-table DELETE statements so that it is no longer possible to have inconsistent or ambiguous table aliases.

    • In MySQL 5.1.23, alias declarations outside the table_references part of the statement were disallowed for the USING variant of multiple-table DELETE syntax, to reduce the possibility of ambiguous aliases that could lead to ambiguous statements that have unexpected results such as deleting rows from the wrong table.

      As of MySQL 5.5.3, alias declarations outside table_references are disallowed for all multiple-table DELETE statements. Alias declarations are permitted only in the table_references part.

      Incorrect:

      DELETE FROM t1 AS a2 USING t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN t2 AS a2;
      DELETE t1 AS a2 FROM t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN t2 AS a2;
      

      Correct:

      DELETE FROM t1 USING t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN t2 AS a2;
      DELETE t1 FROM t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN t2 AS a2;
      
    • Previously, for alias references in the list of tables from which to delete rows in a multiple-table delete, the default database is used unless one is specified explicitly. For example, if the default database is db1, the following statement does not work because the unqualified alias reference a2 is interpreted as having a database of db1:

      DELETE a1, a2 FROM db1.t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN db2.t2 AS a2
      WHERE a1.id=a2.id;
      

      To correctly match an alias that refers to a table outside the default database, you must explicitly qualify the reference with the name of the proper database:

      DELETE a1, db2.a2 FROM db1.t1 AS a1 INNER JOIN db2.t2 AS a2
      WHERE a1.id=a2.id;
      

      As of MySQL 5.5.3, alias resolution does not require qualification and alias references should not be qualified with the database name. Qualified names are interpreted as referring to tables, not aliases.

    Statements containing alias constructs that are no longer permitted must be rewritten.

  • Some keywords may be reserved in MySQL 5.5 that were not reserved in MySQL 5.1. See Section 9.3, “Keywords and Reserved Words”. This can cause words previously used as identifiers to become illegal. To fix affected statements, use identifier quoting. See Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

2.11.2 Downgrading MySQL

This section describes how to downgrade to an older MySQL version.

Note

In the following discussion, MySQL commands that must be run using a MySQL account with administrative privileges include -u root on the command line to specify the MySQL root user. Commands that require a password for root also include a -p option. Because -p is followed by no option value, such commands prompt for the password. Type the password when prompted and press Enter.

SQL statements can be executed using the mysql command-line client (connect as root to ensure that you have the necessary privileges).

Downgrade Methods

Supported downgrade methods include:

  • In-Place Downgrade: Involves shutting down the new MySQL version, replacing the new MySQL binaries or packages with the old ones, and restarting the old MySQL version on the new data files. In-place downgrades are supported for downgrades between GA versions within the same release series. For example, in-place downgrades are supported for downgrades from 5.5.46 to 5.5.45.

  • Logical Downgrade: Involves using mysqldump to dump all tables from the new MySQL version, and then loading the dump file into the old MySQL version. Logical downgrades are supported for downgrades between GA versions within the same release series and for downgrades between release levels. For example, logical downgrades are supported for downgrades from 5.5.46 to 5.5.45 and for downgrades from 5.5 to 5.1.

For procedures, see Performing an In-Place Downgrade, and Performing a Logical Downgrade.

Downgrade Paths

  • Downgrade is only supported between General Availability (GA) releases.

  • Downgrade from MySQL 5.5 to 5.1 is supported using the logical downgrade method.

  • Downgrade that skips versions is not supported. For example, downgrading directly from MySQL 5.5 to 5.0 is not supported.

  • Downgrade within a release series is supported. For example, downgrading from MySQL 5.5.z to 5.5.y is supported. Skipping a release is also supported. For example, downgrading from MySQL 5.5.z to 5.5.x is supported.

Before You Begin

Before downgrading, the following steps are recommended:

  • Review the Release Notes for the MySQL version you are downgrading from to ensure that there are no features or fixes that you really need.

  • Review Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.5”. This section describes changes that may require action before or after downgrading.

    Note

    The downgrade procedures described in the following sections assume you are downgrading with data files created or modified by the newer MySQL version. However, if you did not modify your data after upgrading, downgrading using backups taken before upgrading to the new MySQL version is recommended. Many of the changes described in Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.5” that require action before or after downgrading are not applicable when downgrading using backups taken before upgrading to the new MySQL version.

  • Always back up your current databases and log files before downgrading. The backup should include the mysql database, which contains the MySQL system tables. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  • Use of new features, new configuration options, or new configuration option values that are not supported by a previous release may cause downgrade errors or failures. Before downgrading, it is recommended that you reverse changes resulting from the use of new features and remove configuration settings that are not supported by the release you are downgrading to.

  • If you use XA transactions with InnoDB, run XA RECOVER before downgrading to check for uncommitted XA transactions. If results are returned, either commit or rollback the XA transactions by issuing an XA COMMIT or XA ROLLBACK statement.

Performing an In-Place Downgrade

In-place downgrades are supported for downgrades between GA status releases within the same release series. Before proceeding, review Before You Begin.

To perform an in-place downgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.5” for steps to be performed before downgrading.

  2. If you use InnoDB, configure MySQL to perform a slow shutdown by setting innodb_fast_shutdown to 0. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --execute="SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown=0"
    

    With a slow shutdown, InnoDB performs a full purge and change buffer merge before shutting down, which ensures that data files are fully prepared in case of file format differences between releases.

  3. Shut down the newer MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. After the slow shutdown, remove the InnoDB redo log files (the ib_logfile* files) from the data directory to avoid downgrade issues related to redo log file format changes that may have occurred between releases.

    rm ib_logfile*
    
  5. Downgrade the MySQL binaries or packages in-place by replacing the newer binaries or packages with the older ones.

  6. Start the older (downgraded) MySQL server, using the existing data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    
  7. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    
  8. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    

Performing a Logical Downgrade

Logical downgrades are supported for downgrades between releases within the same release series and for downgrades to the previous release level. Only downgrades between General Availability (GA) status releases are supported. Before proceeding, review Before You Begin.

To perform a logical downgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.5” for steps to be performed before downgrading.

  2. Dump all databases. For example:

    mysqldump -u root -p
      --add-drop-table --routines --events
      --all-databases --force > data-for-downgrade.sql
    
  3. Shut down the newer MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Initialize an older MySQL instance, with a new data directory. For example:

    scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    
  5. Start the older MySQL server, using the new data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/new-datadir
    
  6. Load the dump file into the older MySQL server. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --force < data-for-upgrade.sql
    
  7. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    
  8. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/new-datadir
    

Downgrade Troubleshooting

If you downgrade from one release series to another, there may be incompatibilities in table storage formats. In this case, use mysqldump to dump your tables before downgrading. After downgrading, reload the dump file using mysql or mysqlimport to re-create your tables. For examples, see Section 2.11.4, “Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine”.

A typical symptom of a downward-incompatible table format change when you downgrade is that you cannot open tables. In that case, use the following procedure:

  1. Stop the older MySQL server that you are downgrading to.

  2. Restart the newer MySQL server you are downgrading from.

  3. Dump any tables that were inaccessible to the older server by using mysqldump to create a dump file.

  4. Stop the newer MySQL server and restart the older one.

  5. Reload the dump file into the older server. Your tables should be accessible.

2.11.2.1 Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.5

Before downgrading from MySQL 5.5, review the changes described in this section. Some changes may require action before or after downgrading.

  • System Tables.  The mysql.proc.comment column definition changed between MySQL 5.1 and 5.5. After downgrading from 5.5 to 5.1, this table is seen as corrupt and in need of repair. Running mysql_upgrade from the version of MySQL to which you downgraded (as documented in the downgrade procedures) reverts the mysql.proc.comment column definition.

  • InnoDB.  MySQL 5.5 uses InnoDB Plugin as the built-in version of InnoDB. MySQL 5.1 includes InnoDB Plugin as of 5.1.38, but as an option that must be enabled explicitly. See the Release Notes for MySQL 5.1.38.

  • InnoDB.  In MySQL 5.5.14, the length limit for index prefix keys is increased from 767 bytes to 3072 bytes, for InnoDB tables using ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC or ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED. See Section 14.11.1.7, “Limits on InnoDB Tables” for details. If you downgrade from one of these releases or higher, to an earlier release with a lower length limit, the index prefix keys could be truncated at 767 bytes or the downgrade could fail. This issue could only occur if the configuration option innodb_large_prefix was enabled on the server being downgraded.

  • Tables partitioned by [LINEAR] KEY.  MySQL 5.5 implements new functions used to calculate row placement for tables partitioned by KEY and LINEAR KEY. Tables that were created using KEY or LINEAR KEY partitioning in MySQL 5.5 cannot be used by a MySQL 5.1 server. In MySQL 5.5.31 and later, you can downgrade such tables with ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY ALGORITHM=1 [LINEAR] KEY (...) to make them compatible with MySQL 5.1.

2.11.2.2 Downgrading from MySQL Enterprise Edition to MySQL Community Server

This section describes the steps required to downgrade from MySQL Enterprise Edition to MySQL Community Edition. This can be done at any time, and is required at the expiration of a MySQL Enterprise Edition subscription if you wish to continue using MySQL Server.

When you perform such a downgrade, all commercially licensed components of the MySQL Enterprise Edition subscription must be uninstalled. These components and related considerations are described in the rest of this section.

Note

The issues described in this section are in addition to any that may be encountered as a result of any upgrade or downgrade of the MySQL Server version (such as between MySQL 5.5 and 5.1). Information about upgrading and downgrading between MySQL release series can be found elsewhere in this chapter; see Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, and Section 2.11.2, “Downgrading MySQL”.

MySQL Enterprise Database Server.  All commercial versions of MySQL Database Server must be uninstalled.

Commercially licensed extensions.  All commercially licensed MySQL Enterprise Database Server extensions must be uninstalled. This includes the following commercial extensions:

  • MySQL External Authentication for Windows: Following uninstallation of this plugin, existing MySQL user accounts must be re-created using local authentication. See Section 6.3, “MySQL User Account Management”, for more information.

  • MySQL External Authentication for PAM: Following uninstallation of this plugin, existing MySQL user accounts must be re-created using local authentication. See Section 6.3, “MySQL User Account Management”, for more information.

  • MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool: Following uninstallation of this plugin, existing MySQL servers revert to default thread and connection handling.

  • MySQL Enterprise Audit: Following uninstallation of this plugin, no logging of user logins or query activity occurs.

  • MySQL High Availability: Following uninstallation of this plugin, automated failover is no longer available.

MySQL Enterprise Backup.  MySQL Enterprise Backup must be uninstalled. Uninstalling this application has the effects listed here:

  • Automated backup scripts no longer work.

  • Existing backup images taken with MySQL Enterprise Backup can no longer be used for recovery.

  • Third-party integration with multimedia systems such as NetBackup, Tivoli, and Oracle Secure Backup no longer works.

MySQL Enterprise Monitor, MySQL Query Analyzer, agents.  MySQL Enterprise Monitor, MySQL Query Analyzer, and all server-side agents must be uninstalled. Uninstalling these applications and agents has the following effects:

  • Automated SNMP and SMTP alerts no longer work.

  • All historical MySQL, OS monitoring, query, and performance metrics as well as all trending data are lost.

  • All environment-specific monitoring templates, custom advisors, graphs and scripts are also lost.

2.11.3 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes

This section describes how to rebuild or repair tables or indexes, which may be necessitated by:

  • Changes to how MySQL handles data types or character sets. For example, an error in a collation might have been corrected, necessitating a table rebuild to update the indexes for character columns that use the collation.

  • Required table repairs or upgrades reported by CHECK TABLE, mysqlcheck, or mysql_upgrade.

Methods for rebuilding a table include:

Dump and Reload Method

If you are rebuilding tables because a different version of MySQL will not handle them after a binary (in-place) upgrade or downgrade, you must use the dump-and-reload method. Dump the tables before upgrading or downgrading using your original version of MySQL. Then reload the tables after upgrading or downgrading.

If you use the dump-and-reload method of rebuilding tables only for the purpose of rebuilding indexes, you can perform the dump either before or after upgrading or downgrading. Reloading still must be done afterward.

If you need to rebuild an InnoDB table because a CHECK TABLE operation indicates that a table upgrade is required, use mysqldump to create a dump file and mysql to reload the file. If the CHECK TABLE operation indicates that there is a corruption or causes InnoDB to fail, refer to Section 14.23.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery” for information about using the innodb_force_recovery option to restart InnoDB. To understand the type of problem that CHECK TABLE may be encountering, refer to the InnoDB notes in Section 13.7.2.2, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”.

To rebuild a table by dumping and reloading it, use mysqldump to create a dump file and mysql to reload the file:

mysqldump db_name t1 > dump.sql
mysql db_name < dump.sql

To rebuild all the tables in a single database, specify the database name without any following table name:

mysqldump db_name > dump.sql
mysql db_name < dump.sql

To rebuild all tables in all databases, use the --all-databases option:

mysqldump --all-databases > dump.sql
mysql < dump.sql

ALTER TABLE Method

To rebuild a table with ALTER TABLE, use a null alteration; that is, an ALTER TABLE statement that changes the table to use the storage engine that it already has. For example, if t1 is an InnoDB table, use this statement:

ALTER TABLE t1 ENGINE = InnoDB;

If you are not sure which storage engine to specify in the ALTER TABLE statement, use SHOW CREATE TABLE to display the table definition.

REPAIR TABLE Method

The REPAIR TABLE method is only applicable to MyISAM, ARCHIVE, and CSV tables.

You can use REPAIR TABLE if the table checking operation indicates that there is a corruption or that an upgrade is required. For example, to repair a MyISAM table, use this statement:

REPAIR TABLE t1;

mysqlcheck --repair provides command-line access to the REPAIR TABLE statement. This can be a more convenient means of repairing tables because you can use the --databases or --all-databases option to repair all tables in specific databases or all databases, respectively:

mysqlcheck --repair --databases db_name ...
mysqlcheck --repair --all-databases

2.11.4 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine

In cases where you need to transfer databases between different architectures, you can use mysqldump to create a file containing SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Note

You can copy the .frm, .MYI, and .MYD files for MyISAM tables between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.) See Section 15.3, “The MyISAM Storage Engine”.

Use mysqldump --help to see what options are available.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

mysqladmin -h 'other_hostname' create db_name
mysqldump db_name | mysql -h 'other_hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use these commands:

mysqladmin create db_name
mysqldump -h 'other_hostname' --compress db_name | mysql db_name

You can also store the dump in a file, transfer the file to the target machine, and then load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a compressed file on the source machine like this:

mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.gz

Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

mysqladmin create db_name
gunzip < db_name.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to transfer the database. For large tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR represents the full path name of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

mkdir DUMPDIR
mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Do not forget to copy the mysql database because that is where the grant tables are stored. You might have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.

2.12 Perl Installation Notes

The Perl DBI module provides a generic interface for database access. You can write a DBI script that works with many different database engines without change. To use DBI, you must install the DBI module, as well as a DataBase Driver (DBD) module for each type of database server you want to access. For MySQL, this driver is the DBD::mysql module.

Perl, and the DBD::MySQL module for DBI must be installed if you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts; see Section 8.13.2, “The MySQL Benchmark Suite”. They are also required for the NDB Cluster ndb_size.pl utility; see Section 18.4.25, “ndb_size.pl — NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator”.

Note

Perl support is not included with MySQL distributions. You can obtain the necessary modules from http://search.cpan.org for Unix, or by using the ActiveState ppm program on Windows. The following sections describe how to do this.

The DBI/DBD interface requires Perl 5.6.0, and 5.6.1 or later is preferred. DBI does not work if you have an older version of Perl. You should use DBD::mysql 4.009 or higher. Although earlier versions are available, they do not support the full functionality of MySQL 5.5.

2.12.1 Installing Perl on Unix

MySQL Perl support requires that you have installed MySQL client programming support (libraries and header files). Most installation methods install the necessary files. If you install MySQL from RPM files on Linux, be sure to install the developer RPM as well. The client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM.

The files you need for Perl support can be obtained from the CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) at http://search.cpan.org.

The easiest way to install Perl modules on Unix is to use the CPAN module. For example:

shell> perl -MCPAN -e shell
cpan> install DBI
cpan> install DBD::mysql

The DBD::mysql installation runs a number of tests. These tests attempt to connect to the local MySQL server using the default user name and password. (The default user name is your login name on Unix, and ODBC on Windows. The default password is no password.) If you cannot connect to the server with those values (for example, if your account has a password), the tests fail. You can use force install DBD::mysql to ignore the failed tests.

DBI requires the Data::Dumper module. It may be installed; if not, you should install it before installing DBI.

It is also possible to download the module distributions in the form of compressed tar archives and build the modules manually. For example, to unpack and build a DBI distribution, use a procedure such as this:

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

    shell> gunzip < DBI-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    

    This command creates a directory named DBI-VERSION.

  2. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

    shell> cd DBI-VERSION
    
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:

    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install
    

The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the DBD::mysql installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test fails.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the DBD::mysql distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL. This ensures that the latest versions of the MySQL client libraries are installed correctly.

If you do not have access rights to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you want to install local Perl modules, the following reference may be useful: http://learn.perl.org/faq/perlfaq8.html#How-do-I-keep-my-own-module-library-directory-

2.12.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows

On Windows, you should do the following to install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl:

  1. Get ActiveState Perl from http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/ and install it.

  2. Open a console window.

  3. If necessary, set the HTTP_proxy variable. For example, you might try a setting like this:

    C:\> set HTTP_proxy=my.proxy.com:3128
    
  4. Start the PPM program:

    C:\> C:\perl\bin\ppm.pl
    
  5. If you have not previously done so, install DBI:

    ppm> install DBI
    
  6. If this succeeds, run the following command:

    ppm> install DBD-mysql
    

This procedure should work with ActiveState Perl 5.6 or higher.

If you cannot get the procedure to work, you should install the ODBC driver instead and connect to the MySQL server through ODBC:

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn",$user,$password) ||
  die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

2.12.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

If Perl reports that it cannot find the ../mysql/mysql.so module, the problem is probably that Perl cannot locate the libmysqlclient.so shared library. You should be able to fix this problem by one of the following methods:

  • Copy libmysqlclient.so to the directory where your other shared libraries are located (probably /usr/lib or /lib).

  • Modify the -L options used to compile DBD::mysql to reflect the actual location of libmysqlclient.so.

  • On Linux, you can add the path name of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the /etc/ld.so.conf file.

  • Add the path name of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable. Some systems use LD_LIBRARY_PATH instead.

Note that you may also need to modify the -L options if there are other libraries that the linker fails to find. For example, if the linker cannot find libc because it is in /lib and the link command specifies -L/usr/lib, change the -L option to -L/lib or add -L/lib to the existing link command.

If you get the following errors from DBD::mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the mysql.so library gets built (check the output from make for mysql.so when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the path name of the directory where libgcc.a is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL are not both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.