MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual

Abstract

This is the MySQL™ Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 8.0 through 8.0.13. It may include documentation of features of MySQL versions that have not yet been released. For information about which versions have been released, see the MySQL 8.0 Release Notes.

MySQL Cluster is currently not supported in MySQL 8.0. For information about MySQL Cluster, please see MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5 and NDB Cluster 7.6.

MySQL 8.0 features.  This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of MySQL 8.0; such features may not be included in the edition of MySQL 8.0 licensed to you. If you have any questions about the features included in your edition of MySQL 8.0, refer to your MySQL 8.0 license agreement or contact your Oracle sales representative.

For notes detailing the changes in each release, see the MySQL 8.0 Release Notes.

For legal information, including licensing information, see the Preface and Legal Notices.

For help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists, where you can discuss your issues with other MySQL users.

Document generated on: 2018-04-27 (revision: 57188)


Table of Contents

Preface and Legal Notices
1 General Information
1.1 About This Manual
1.2 Typographical and Syntax Conventions
1.3 Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.3.1 What is MySQL?
1.3.2 The Main Features of MySQL
1.3.3 History of MySQL
1.4 What Is New in MySQL 8.0
1.5 Server and Status Variables and Options Added, Deprecated, or Removed in MySQL 8.0
1.6 MySQL Information Sources
1.6.1 MySQL Websites
1.6.2 MySQL Mailing Lists
1.6.3 MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.6.4 MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.6.5 MySQL Enterprise
1.7 How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.8 MySQL Standards Compliance
1.8.1 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.8.2 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.8.3 How MySQL Deals with Constraints
1.9 Credits
1.9.1 Contributors to MySQL
1.9.2 Documenters and translators
1.9.3 Packages that support MySQL
1.9.4 Tools that were used to create MySQL
1.9.5 Supporters of MySQL
2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing an Installation Package
2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows
2.3.4 MySQL Notifier
2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive
2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.3.8 Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.9 Deploying MySQL on Windows and Other Non-Linux Platforms
2.4 Installing MySQL on macOS
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository
2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle
2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle
2.5.6 Deploying MySQL on Linux with Docker
2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories
2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with Juju
2.5.9 Managing MySQL Server with systemd
2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.8 Installing MySQL from Source
2.8.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.8.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.8.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.8.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.8.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.8.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.8.7 Generating MySQL Doxygen Documentation Content
2.9 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.9.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.9.2 Starting the Server
2.9.3 Testing the Server
2.9.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Account
2.9.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.10 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.10.1 Upgrading MySQL
2.10.2 Downgrading MySQL
2.10.3 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.10.4 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.11 Perl Installation Notes
2.11.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.11.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.11.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3 Tutorial
3.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2 Entering Queries
3.3 Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2 Creating a Table
3.3.3 Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5 Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6 Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1 The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3 Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.5 Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6 Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7 Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8 Calculating Visits Per Day
3.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT
3.7 Using MySQL with Apache
4 MySQL Programs
4.1 Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2 Using MySQL Programs
4.2.1 Invoking MySQL Programs
4.2.2 Connecting to the MySQL Server
4.2.3 Specifying Program Options
4.2.4 Using Options on the Command Line
4.2.5 Program Option Modifiers
4.2.6 Using Option Files
4.2.7 Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling
4.2.8 Using Options to Set Program Variables
4.2.9 Option Defaults, Options Expecting Values, and the = Sign
4.2.10 Setting Environment Variables
4.3 MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs
4.3.1 mysqld — The MySQL Server
4.3.2 mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.3 mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
4.3.4 mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
4.4 MySQL Installation-Related Programs
4.4.1 comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File
4.4.2 mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security
4.4.3 mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files
4.4.4 mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
4.4.5 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables
4.5 MySQL Client Programs
4.5.1 mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
4.5.2 mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
4.5.3 mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance Program
4.5.4 mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.5 mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
4.5.6 mysqlpump — A Database Backup Program
4.5.7 mysqlsh — The MySQL Shell
4.5.8 mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
4.5.9 mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
4.6 MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs
4.6.1 ibd2sdi — InnoDB Tablespace SDI Extraction Utility
4.6.2 innochecksum — Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility
4.6.3 myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
4.6.4 myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
4.6.5 myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
4.6.6 myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
4.6.7 mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility
4.6.8 mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
4.6.9 mysqldumpslow — Summarize Slow Query Log Files
4.7 MySQL Program Development Utilities
4.7.1 mysql_config — Display Options for Compiling Clients
4.7.2 my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
4.7.3 resolve_stack_dump — Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols
4.8 Miscellaneous Programs
4.8.1 lz4_decompress — Decompress mysqlpump LZ4-Compressed Output
4.8.2 perror — Explain Error Codes
4.8.3 resolveip — Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa
4.8.4 zlib_decompress — Decompress mysqlpump ZLIB-Compressed Output
4.9 MySQL Program Environment Variables
5 MySQL Server Administration
5.1 The MySQL Server
5.1.1 Configuring the Server
5.1.2 Server Configuration Defaults
5.1.3 Server Option, System Variable, and Status Variable Reference
5.1.4 Server System Variable Reference
5.1.5 Server Status Variable Reference
5.1.6 Server Command Options
5.1.7 Server System Variables
5.1.8 Using System Variables
5.1.9 Server Status Variables
5.1.10 Server SQL Modes
5.1.11 IPv6 Support
5.1.12 MySQL Server Time Zone Support
5.1.13 Server-Side Help
5.1.14 Server Response to Signals
5.1.15 The Server Shutdown Process
5.2 The MySQL Data Directory
5.3 The mysql System Database
5.4 MySQL Server Logs
5.4.1 Selecting General Query and Slow Query Log Output Destinations
5.4.2 The Error Log
5.4.3 The General Query Log
5.4.4 The Binary Log
5.4.5 The Slow Query Log
5.4.6 The DDL Log
5.4.7 Server Log Maintenance
5.5 MySQL Server Components
5.5.1 Error Log Components
5.6 MySQL Server Plugins
5.6.1 Installing and Uninstalling Plugins
5.6.2 Obtaining Server Plugin Information
5.6.3 MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool
5.6.4 The Rewriter Query Rewrite Plugin
5.6.5 Version Tokens
5.7 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine
5.7.1 Setting Up Multiple Data Directories
5.7.2 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Windows
5.7.3 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Unix
5.7.4 Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
6 Security
6.1 General Security Issues
6.1.1 Security Guidelines
6.1.2 Keeping Passwords Secure
6.1.3 Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
6.1.4 Security-Related mysqld Options and Variables
6.1.5 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
6.1.6 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
6.1.7 Client Programming Security Guidelines
6.2 The MySQL Access Privilege System
6.2.1 Privileges Provided by MySQL
6.2.2 Static Versus Dynamic Privileges
6.2.3 Grant Tables
6.2.4 Specifying Account Names
6.2.5 Specifying Role Names
6.2.6 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
6.2.7 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
6.2.8 When Privilege Changes Take Effect
6.2.9 Troubleshooting Problems Connecting to MySQL
6.3 MySQL User Account Management
6.3.1 User Names and Passwords
6.3.2 Adding User Accounts
6.3.3 Removing User Accounts
6.3.4 Using Roles
6.3.5 Reserved User Accounts
6.3.6 Setting Account Resource Limits
6.3.7 Assigning Account Passwords
6.3.8 Password Management
6.3.9 Server Handling of Expired Passwords
6.3.10 Pluggable Authentication
6.3.11 Proxy Users
6.3.12 User Account Locking
6.3.13 SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing
6.4 Using Encrypted Connections
6.4.1 Configuring MySQL to Use Encrypted Connections
6.4.2 Command Options for Encrypted Connections
6.4.3 Creating SSL and RSA Certificates and Keys
6.4.4 OpenSSL Versus wolfSSL
6.4.5 Building MySQL with Support for Encrypted Connections
6.4.6 Encrypted Connection Protocols and Ciphers
6.4.7 Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
6.5 Security Components and Plugins
6.5.1 Authentication Plugins
6.5.2 The Connection-Control Plugins
6.5.3 The Password Validation Component
6.5.4 The MySQL Keyring
6.5.5 MySQL Enterprise Audit
6.5.6 MySQL Enterprise Firewall
6.6 FIPS Support
7 Backup and Recovery
7.1 Backup and Recovery Types
7.2 Database Backup Methods
7.3 Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
7.3.1 Establishing a Backup Policy
7.3.2 Using Backups for Recovery
7.3.3 Backup Strategy Summary
7.4 Using mysqldump for Backups
7.4.1 Dumping Data in SQL Format with mysqldump
7.4.2 Reloading SQL-Format Backups
7.4.3 Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump
7.4.4 Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups
7.4.5 mysqldump Tips
7.5 Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log
7.5.1 Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Times
7.5.2 Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Positions
7.6 MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
7.6.1 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
7.6.2 How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
7.6.3 How to Repair MyISAM Tables
7.6.4 MyISAM Table Optimization
7.6.5 Setting Up a MyISAM Table Maintenance Schedule
8 Optimization
8.1 Optimization Overview
8.2 Optimizing SQL Statements
8.2.1 Optimizing SELECT Statements
8.2.2 Optimizing Subqueries, Derived Tables, View References, and Common Table Expressions
8.2.3 Optimizing INFORMATION_SCHEMA Queries
8.2.4 Optimizing Performance Schema Queries
8.2.5 Optimizing Data Change Statements
8.2.6 Optimizing Database Privileges
8.2.7 Other Optimization Tips
8.3 Optimization and Indexes
8.3.1 How MySQL Uses Indexes
8.3.2 Primary Key Optimization
8.3.3 SPATIAL Index Optimization
8.3.4 Foreign Key Optimization
8.3.5 Column Indexes
8.3.6 Multiple-Column Indexes
8.3.7 Verifying Index Usage
8.3.8 InnoDB and MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
8.3.9 Comparison of B-Tree and Hash Indexes
8.3.10 Use of Index Extensions
8.3.11 Optimizer Use of Generated Column Indexes
8.3.12 Invisible Indexes
8.3.13 Descending Indexes
8.4 Optimizing Database Structure
8.4.1 Optimizing Data Size
8.4.2 Optimizing MySQL Data Types
8.4.3 Optimizing for Many Tables
8.4.4 Internal Temporary Table Use in MySQL
8.5 Optimizing for InnoDB Tables
8.5.1 Optimizing Storage Layout for InnoDB Tables
8.5.2 Optimizing InnoDB Transaction Management
8.5.3 Optimizing InnoDB Read-Only Transactions
8.5.4 Optimizing InnoDB Redo Logging
8.5.5 Bulk Data Loading for InnoDB Tables
8.5.6 Optimizing InnoDB Queries
8.5.7 Optimizing InnoDB DDL Operations
8.5.8 Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O
8.5.9 Optimizing InnoDB Configuration Variables
8.5.10 Optimizing InnoDB for Systems with Many Tables
8.6 Optimizing for MyISAM Tables
8.6.1 Optimizing MyISAM Queries
8.6.2 Bulk Data Loading for MyISAM Tables
8.6.3 Optimizing REPAIR TABLE Statements
8.7 Optimizing for MEMORY Tables
8.8 Understanding the Query Execution Plan
8.8.1 Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
8.8.2 EXPLAIN Output Format
8.8.3 Extended EXPLAIN Output Format
8.8.4 Obtaining Execution Plan Information for a Named Connection
8.8.5 Estimating Query Performance
8.9 Controlling the Query Optimizer
8.9.1 Controlling Query Plan Evaluation
8.9.2 Optimizer Hints
8.9.3 Switchable Optimizations
8.9.4 Index Hints
8.9.5 The Optimizer Cost Model
8.9.6 Optimizer Statistics
8.10 Buffering and Caching
8.10.1 InnoDB Buffer Pool Optimization
8.10.2 The MyISAM Key Cache
8.10.3 Caching of Prepared Statements and Stored Programs
8.11 Optimizing Locking Operations
8.11.1 Internal Locking Methods
8.11.2 Table Locking Issues
8.11.3 Concurrent Inserts
8.11.4 Metadata Locking
8.11.5 External Locking
8.12 Optimizing the MySQL Server
8.12.1 Optimizing Disk I/O
8.12.2 Using Symbolic Links
8.12.3 Optimizing Memory Use
8.12.4 Optimizing Network Use
8.12.5 Resource Groups
8.13 Measuring Performance (Benchmarking)
8.13.1 Measuring the Speed of Expressions and Functions
8.13.2 Using Your Own Benchmarks
8.13.3 Measuring Performance with performance_schema
8.14 Examining Thread Information
8.14.1 Thread Command Values
8.14.2 General Thread States
8.14.3 Replication Master Thread States
8.14.4 Replication Slave I/O Thread States
8.14.5 Replication Slave SQL Thread States
8.14.6 Replication Slave Connection Thread States
8.14.7 Event Scheduler Thread States
9 Language Structure
9.1 Literal Values
9.1.1 String Literals
9.1.2 Numeric Literals
9.1.3 Date and Time Literals
9.1.4 Hexadecimal Literals
9.1.5 Bit-Value Literals
9.1.6 Boolean Literals
9.1.7 NULL Values
9.2 Schema Object Names
9.2.1 Identifier Qualifiers
9.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity
9.2.3 Mapping of Identifiers to File Names
9.2.4 Function Name Parsing and Resolution
9.3 Keywords and Reserved Words
9.4 User-Defined Variables
9.5 Expression Syntax
9.6 Comment Syntax
10 Character Sets, Collations, Unicode
10.1 Character Sets and Collations in General
10.2 Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
10.2.1 Character Set Repertoire
10.2.2 UTF-8 for Metadata
10.3 Specifying Character Sets and Collations
10.3.1 Collation Naming Conventions
10.3.2 Server Character Set and Collation
10.3.3 Database Character Set and Collation
10.3.4 Table Character Set and Collation
10.3.5 Column Character Set and Collation
10.3.6 Character String Literal Character Set and Collation
10.3.7 The National Character Set
10.3.8 Character Set Introducers
10.3.9 Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment
10.3.10 Compatibility with Other DBMSs
10.4 Connection Character Sets and Collations
10.5 Configuring Application Character Set and Collation
10.6 Error Message Character Set
10.7 Column Character Set Conversion
10.8 Collation Issues
10.8.1 Using COLLATE in SQL Statements
10.8.2 COLLATE Clause Precedence
10.8.3 Character Set and Collation Compatibility
10.8.4 Collation Coercibility in Expressions
10.8.5 The binary Collation Compared to _bin Collations
10.8.6 Examples of the Effect of Collation
10.8.7 Using Collation in INFORMATION_SCHEMA Searches
10.9 Unicode Support
10.9.1 The utf8mb4 Character Set (4-Byte UTF-8 Unicode Encoding)
10.9.2 The utf8mb3 Character Set (3-Byte UTF-8 Unicode Encoding)
10.9.3 The utf8 Character Set (Alias for utf8mb3)
10.9.4 The ucs2 Character Set (UCS-2 Unicode Encoding)
10.9.5 The utf16 Character Set (UTF-16 Unicode Encoding)
10.9.6 The utf16le Character Set (UTF-16LE Unicode Encoding)
10.9.7 The utf32 Character Set (UTF-32 Unicode Encoding)
10.9.8 Converting Between 3-Byte and 4-Byte Unicode Character Sets
10.10 Supported Character Sets and Collations
10.10.1 Unicode Character Sets
10.10.2 West European Character Sets
10.10.3 Central European Character Sets
10.10.4 South European and Middle East Character Sets
10.10.5 Baltic Character Sets
10.10.6 Cyrillic Character Sets
10.10.7 Asian Character Sets
10.10.8 The Binary Character Set
10.11 Setting the Error Message Language
10.12 Adding a Character Set
10.12.1 Character Definition Arrays
10.12.2 String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets
10.12.3 Multi-Byte Character Support for Complex Character Sets
10.13 Adding a Collation to a Character Set
10.13.1 Collation Implementation Types
10.13.2 Choosing a Collation ID
10.13.3 Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set
10.13.4 Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set
10.14 Character Set Configuration
10.15 MySQL Server Locale Support
11 Data Types
11.1 Data Type Overview
11.1.1 Numeric Type Overview
11.1.2 Date and Time Type Overview
11.1.3 String Type Overview
11.2 Numeric Types
11.2.1 Integer Types (Exact Value) - INTEGER, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, BIGINT
11.2.2 Fixed-Point Types (Exact Value) - DECIMAL, NUMERIC
11.2.3 Floating-Point Types (Approximate Value) - FLOAT, DOUBLE
11.2.4 Bit-Value Type - BIT
11.2.5 Numeric Type Attributes
11.2.6 Out-of-Range and Overflow Handling
11.3 Date and Time Types
11.3.1 The DATE, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP Types
11.3.2 The TIME Type
11.3.3 The YEAR Type
11.3.4 Migrating YEAR(2) Columns to YEAR(4)
11.3.5 Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME
11.3.6 Fractional Seconds in Time Values
11.3.7 Conversion Between Date and Time Types
11.3.8 Two-Digit Years in Dates
11.4 String Types
11.4.1 The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
11.4.2 The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
11.4.3 The BLOB and TEXT Types
11.4.4 The ENUM Type
11.4.5 The SET Type
11.5 Spatial Data Types
11.5.1 Spatial Data Types
11.5.2 The OpenGIS Geometry Model
11.5.3 Supported Spatial Data Formats
11.5.4 Geometry Well-Formedness and Validity
11.5.5 Spatial Reference System Support
11.5.6 Creating Spatial Columns
11.5.7 Populating Spatial Columns
11.5.8 Fetching Spatial Data
11.5.9 Optimizing Spatial Analysis
11.5.10 Creating Spatial Indexes
11.5.11 Using Spatial Indexes
11.6 The JSON Data Type
11.7 Data Type Default Values
11.8 Data Type Storage Requirements
11.9 Choosing the Right Type for a Column
11.10 Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
12 Functions and Operators
12.1 Function and Operator Reference
12.2 Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
12.3 Operators
12.3.1 Operator Precedence
12.3.2 Comparison Functions and Operators
12.3.3 Logical Operators
12.3.4 Assignment Operators
12.4 Control Flow Functions
12.5 String Functions
12.5.1 String Comparison Functions
12.5.2 Regular Expressions
12.5.3 Character Set and Collation of Function Results
12.6 Numeric Functions and Operators
12.6.1 Arithmetic Operators
12.6.2 Mathematical Functions
12.7 Date and Time Functions
12.8 What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
12.9 Full-Text Search Functions
12.9.1 Natural Language Full-Text Searches
12.9.2 Boolean Full-Text Searches
12.9.3 Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
12.9.4 Full-Text Stopwords
12.9.5 Full-Text Restrictions
12.9.6 Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
12.9.7 Adding a Collation for Full-Text Indexing
12.9.8 ngram Full-Text Parser
12.9.9 MeCab Full-Text Parser Plugin
12.10 Cast Functions and Operators
12.11 XML Functions
12.12 Bit Functions and Operators
12.13 Encryption and Compression Functions
12.14 Information Functions
12.15 Spatial Analysis Functions
12.15.1 Spatial Function Reference
12.15.2 Argument Handling by Spatial Functions
12.15.3 Functions That Create Geometry Values from WKT Values
12.15.4 Functions That Create Geometry Values from WKB Values
12.15.5 MySQL-Specific Functions That Create Geometry Values
12.15.6 Geometry Format Conversion Functions
12.15.7 Geometry Property Functions
12.15.8 Spatial Operator Functions
12.15.9 Functions That Test Spatial Relations Between Geometry Objects
12.15.10 Spatial Geohash Functions
12.15.11 Spatial GeoJSON Functions
12.15.12 Spatial Convenience Functions
12.16 JSON Functions
12.16.1 JSON Function Reference
12.16.2 Functions That Create JSON Values
12.16.3 Functions That Search JSON Values
12.16.4 Functions That Modify JSON Values
12.16.5 Functions That Return JSON Value Attributes
12.16.6 JSON Table Functions
12.16.7 JSON Utility Functions
12.16.8 JSON Path Syntax
12.17 Functions Used with Global Transaction IDs
12.18 MySQL Enterprise Encryption Functions
12.18.1 Enterprise Encryption Installation
12.18.2 Enterprise Encryption Usage and Examples
12.18.3 Enterprise Encryption Function Reference
12.18.4 Enterprise Encryption Function Descriptions
12.19 Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
12.19.1 Aggregate (GROUP BY) Function Descriptions
12.19.2 GROUP BY Modifiers
12.19.3 MySQL Handling of GROUP BY
12.19.4 Detection of Functional Dependence
12.20 Window Functions
12.20.1 Window Function Descriptions
12.20.2 Window Function Concepts and Syntax
12.20.3 Window Function Frame Specification
12.20.4 Named Windows
12.20.5 Window Function Restrictions
12.21 Internal Functions
12.22 Miscellaneous Functions
12.23 Precision Math
12.23.1 Types of Numeric Values
12.23.2 DECIMAL Data Type Characteristics
12.23.3 Expression Handling
12.23.4 Rounding Behavior
12.23.5 Precision Math Examples
13 SQL Statement Syntax
13.1 Data Definition Statements
13.1.1 Atomic Data Definition Statement Support
13.1.2 ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.3 ALTER EVENT Syntax
13.1.4 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.5 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax
13.1.6 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
13.1.7 ALTER SERVER Syntax
13.1.8 ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.9 ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.10 ALTER VIEW Syntax
13.1.11 CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.12 CREATE EVENT Syntax
13.1.13 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.14 CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.15 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.16 CREATE SERVER Syntax
13.1.17 CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Syntax
13.1.18 CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.19 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.20 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.21 CREATE VIEW Syntax
13.1.22 DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.23 DROP EVENT Syntax
13.1.24 DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.25 DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.26 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.27 DROP SERVER Syntax
13.1.28 DROP SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Syntax
13.1.29 DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.30 DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.31 DROP TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.32 DROP VIEW Syntax
13.1.33 RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.1.34 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
13.2 Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1 CALL Syntax
13.2.2 DELETE Syntax
13.2.3 DO Syntax
13.2.4 HANDLER Syntax
13.2.5 IMPORT TABLE Syntax
13.2.6 INSERT Syntax
13.2.7 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
13.2.8 LOAD XML Syntax
13.2.9 REPLACE Syntax
13.2.10 SELECT Syntax
13.2.11 Subquery Syntax
13.2.12 UPDATE Syntax
13.2.13 WITH Syntax (Common Table Expressions)
13.3 Transactional and Locking Statements
13.3.1 START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax
13.3.2 Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.3.3 Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.3.4 SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, and RELEASE SAVEPOINT Syntax
13.3.5 LOCK INSTANCE FOR BACKUP and UNLOCK INSTANCE Syntax
13.3.6 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
13.3.7 SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.3.8 XA Transactions
13.4 Replication Statements
13.4.1 SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.4.2 SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.4.3 SQL Statements for Controlling Group Replication
13.5 Prepared SQL Statement Syntax
13.5.1 PREPARE Syntax
13.5.2 EXECUTE Syntax
13.5.3 DEALLOCATE PREPARE Syntax
13.6 Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.1 BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.2 Statement Label Syntax
13.6.3 DECLARE Syntax
13.6.4 Variables in Stored Programs
13.6.5 Flow Control Statements
13.6.6 Cursors
13.6.7 Condition Handling
13.7 Database Administration Statements
13.7.1 Account Management Statements
13.7.2 Resource Group Management Statements
13.7.3 Table Maintenance Statements
13.7.4 Component, Plugin, and User-Defined Function Statements
13.7.5 SET Syntax
13.7.6 SHOW Syntax
13.7.7 Other Administrative Statements
13.8 Utility Statements
13.8.1 DESCRIBE Syntax
13.8.2 EXPLAIN Syntax
13.8.3 HELP Syntax
13.8.4 USE Syntax
14 MySQL Data Dictionary
14.1 Data Dictionary Schema
14.2 Removal of File-based Metadata Storage
14.3 Transactional Storage of Dictionary Data
14.4 Dictionary Object Cache
14.5 INFORMATION_SCHEMA and Data Dictionary Integration
14.6 Serialized Dictionary Information (SDI)
14.7 Data Dictionary Usage Differences
14.8 Data Dictionary Limitations
15 The InnoDB Storage Engine
15.1 Introduction to InnoDB
15.1.1 Benefits of Using InnoDB Tables
15.1.2 Best Practices for InnoDB Tables
15.1.3 Verifying that InnoDB is the Default Storage Engine
15.1.4 Testing and Benchmarking with InnoDB
15.2 InnoDB and the ACID Model
15.3 InnoDB Multi-Versioning
15.4 InnoDB Architecture
15.4.1 Buffer Pool
15.4.2 Change Buffer
15.4.3 Adaptive Hash Index
15.4.4 Redo Log Buffer
15.4.5 System Tablespace
15.4.6 Doublewrite Buffer
15.4.7 Undo Logs
15.4.8 File-Per-Table Tablespaces
15.4.9 General Tablespaces
15.4.10 Undo Tablespace
15.4.11 Temporary Tablespace
15.4.12 Redo Log
15.5 InnoDB Locking and Transaction Model
15.5.1 InnoDB Locking
15.5.2 InnoDB Transaction Model
15.5.3 Locks Set by Different SQL Statements in InnoDB
15.5.4 Phantom Rows
15.5.5 Deadlocks in InnoDB
15.6 InnoDB Configuration
15.6.1 InnoDB Startup Configuration
15.6.2 Configuring InnoDB for Read-Only Operation
15.6.3 InnoDB Buffer Pool Configuration
15.6.4 Configuring InnoDB Change Buffering
15.6.5 Configuring Thread Concurrency for InnoDB
15.6.6 Configuring the Number of Background InnoDB I/O Threads
15.6.7 Using Asynchronous I/O on Linux
15.6.8 Configuring the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate
15.6.9 Configuring Spin Lock Polling
15.6.10 Configuring InnoDB Purge Scheduling
15.6.11 Configuring Optimizer Statistics for InnoDB
15.6.12 Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages
15.6.13 Enabling Automatic Configuration for a Dedicated MySQL Server
15.7 InnoDB Tablespaces
15.7.1 Resizing the InnoDB System Tablespace
15.7.2 Changing the Number or Size of InnoDB Redo Log Files
15.7.3 Using Raw Disk Partitions for the System Tablespace
15.7.4 InnoDB File-Per-Table Tablespaces
15.7.5 Creating File-Per-Table Tablespaces Outside the Data Directory
15.7.6 Copying File-Per-Table Tablespaces to Another Instance
15.7.7 Moving Tablespace Files While the Server is Offline
15.7.8 Configuring Undo Tablespaces
15.7.9 Truncating Undo Tablespaces
15.7.10 InnoDB General Tablespaces
15.7.11 InnoDB Tablespace Encryption
15.8 InnoDB Tables and Indexes
15.8.1 InnoDB Tables
15.8.2 InnoDB Indexes
15.9 InnoDB Table and Page Compression
15.9.1 InnoDB Table Compression
15.9.2 InnoDB Page Compression
15.10 InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats
15.10.1 Overview of InnoDB Row Storage
15.10.2 Specifying the Row Format for a Table
15.10.3 DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats
15.10.4 COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats
15.11 InnoDB Disk I/O and File Space Management
15.11.1 InnoDB Disk I/O
15.11.2 File Space Management
15.11.3 InnoDB Checkpoints
15.11.4 Defragmenting a Table
15.11.5 Reclaiming Disk Space with TRUNCATE TABLE
15.12 InnoDB and Online DDL
15.12.1 Online DDL Overview
15.12.2 Online DDL Performance, Concurrency, and Space Requirements
15.12.3 Online DDL SQL Syntax
15.12.4 Simplifying DDL Statements with Online DDL
15.12.5 Online DDL Implementation Details
15.12.6 Online DDL for Partitioned Tables
15.12.7 Online DDL Limitations
15.13 InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
15.14 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
15.14.1 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables about Compression
15.14.2 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Transaction and Locking Information
15.14.3 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Schema Object Tables
15.14.4 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA FULLTEXT Index Tables
15.14.5 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Buffer Pool Tables
15.14.6 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Metrics Table
15.14.7 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Temporary Table Info Table
15.14.8 Retrieving InnoDB Tablespace Metadata from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
15.15 InnoDB Integration with MySQL Performance Schema
15.15.1 Monitoring ALTER TABLE Progress for InnoDB Tables Using Performance Schema
15.15.2 Monitoring InnoDB Mutex Waits Using Performance Schema
15.16 InnoDB Monitors
15.16.1 InnoDB Monitor Types
15.16.2 Enabling InnoDB Monitors
15.16.3 InnoDB Standard Monitor and Lock Monitor Output
15.17 InnoDB Backup and Recovery
15.17.1 InnoDB Backup
15.17.2 InnoDB Recovery
15.18 InnoDB and MySQL Replication
15.19 InnoDB memcached Plugin
15.19.1 Benefits of the InnoDB memcached Plugin
15.19.2 InnoDB memcached Architecture
15.19.3 Setting Up the InnoDB memcached Plugin
15.19.4 InnoDB memcached Multiple get and Range Query Support
15.19.5 Security Considerations for the InnoDB memcached Plugin
15.19.6 Writing Applications for the InnoDB memcached Plugin
15.19.7 The InnoDB memcached Plugin and Replication
15.19.8 InnoDB memcached Plugin Internals
15.19.9 Troubleshooting the InnoDB memcached Plugin
15.20 InnoDB Troubleshooting
15.20.1 Troubleshooting InnoDB I/O Problems
15.20.2 Forcing InnoDB Recovery
15.20.3 Troubleshooting InnoDB Data Dictionary Operations
15.20.4 InnoDB Error Handling
16 Alternative Storage Engines
16.1 Setting the Storage Engine
16.2 The MyISAM Storage Engine
16.2.1 MyISAM Startup Options
16.2.2 Space Needed for Keys
16.2.3 MyISAM Table Storage Formats
16.2.4 MyISAM Table Problems
16.3 The MEMORY Storage Engine
16.4 The CSV Storage Engine
16.4.1 Repairing and Checking CSV Tables
16.4.2 CSV Limitations
16.5 The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
16.6 The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
16.7 The MERGE Storage Engine
16.7.1 MERGE Table Advantages and Disadvantages
16.7.2 MERGE Table Problems
16.8 The FEDERATED Storage Engine
16.8.1 FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview
16.8.2 How to Create FEDERATED Tables
16.8.3 FEDERATED Storage Engine Notes and Tips
16.8.4 FEDERATED Storage Engine Resources
16.9 The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
16.10 Other Storage Engines
16.11 Overview of MySQL Storage Engine Architecture
16.11.1 Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
16.11.2 The Common Database Server Layer
17 Replication
17.1 Configuring Replication
17.1.1 Binary Log File Position Based Replication Configuration Overview
17.1.2 Setting Up Binary Log File Position Based Replication
17.1.3 Replication with Global Transaction Identifiers
17.1.4 MySQL Multi-Source Replication
17.1.5 Changing Replication Modes on Online Servers
17.1.6 Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables
17.1.7 Common Replication Administration Tasks
17.2 Replication Implementation
17.2.1 Replication Formats
17.2.2 Replication Implementation Details
17.2.3 Replication Channels
17.2.4 Replication Relay and Status Logs
17.2.5 How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules
17.3 Replication Solutions
17.3.1 Using Replication for Backups
17.3.2 Handling an Unexpected Halt of a Replication Slave
17.3.3 Monitoring Row-based Replication
17.3.4 Using Replication with Different Master and Slave Storage Engines
17.3.5 Using Replication for Scale-Out
17.3.6 Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
17.3.7 Improving Replication Performance
17.3.8 Switching Masters During Failover
17.3.9 Setting Up Replication to Use Encrypted Connections
17.3.10 Semisynchronous Replication
17.3.11 Delayed Replication
17.4 Replication Notes and Tips
17.4.1 Replication Features and Issues
17.4.2 Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
17.4.3 Upgrading a Replication Setup
17.4.4 Troubleshooting Replication
17.4.5 How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
18 Group Replication
18.1 Group Replication Background
18.1.1 Replication Technologies
18.1.2 Group Replication Use Cases
18.1.3 Group Replication Details
18.2 Getting Started
18.2.1 Deploying Group Replication in Single-Primary Mode
18.3 Monitoring Group Replication
18.3.1 Replication_group_member_stats
18.3.2 Replication_group_members
18.3.3 Replication_connection_status
18.3.4 Replication_applier_status
18.3.5 Group Replication Server States
18.4 Group Replication Operations
18.4.1 Deploying in Multi-Primary or Single-Primary Mode
18.4.2 Tuning Recovery
18.4.3 Network Partitioning
18.4.4 Using MySQL Enterprise Backup with Group Replication
18.5 Group Replication Security
18.5.1 IP Address Whitelisting
18.5.2 Secure Socket Layer Support (SSL)
18.5.3 Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
18.6 Group Replication System Variables
18.7 Requirements and Limitations
18.7.1 Group Replication Requirements
18.7.2 Group Replication Limitations
18.8 Frequently Asked Questions
18.9 Group Replication Technical Details
18.9.1 Group Replication Plugin Architecture
18.9.2 The Group
18.9.3 Data Manipulation Statements
18.9.4 Data Definition Statements
18.9.5 Distributed Recovery
18.9.6 Observability
18.9.7 Group Replication Performance
19 MySQL Shell User Guide
19.1 MySQL Shell Features
19.2 Getting Started with MySQL Shell
19.2.1 MySQL Shell Connections
19.2.2 MySQL Shell Sessions
19.2.3 MySQL Shell Global Variables
19.2.4 MySQL Shell Code History
19.3 MySQL Shell Code Execution
19.3.1 Interactive Code Execution
19.3.2 Code Autocompletion
19.3.3 Batch Code Execution
19.3.4 Output Formats
19.3.5 Active Language
19.3.6 Batch Mode Made Interactive
19.4 Configuring MySQL Shell
19.4.1 MySQL Shell Commands
19.5 MySQL Shell Utilities
19.6 MySQL Shell Application Log
19.6.1 Application Log
19.7 Customizing MySQL Shell
19.7.1 Working With Start-Up Scripts
19.7.2 Adding Module Search Paths
19.7.3 Customizing the Prompt
19.7.4 Configuring MySQL Shell
20 Using MySQL as a Document Store
20.1 Key Concepts
20.2 Setting Up MySQL as a Document Store
20.2.1 Installing MySQL Shell
20.2.2 Starting MySQL Shell
20.3 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL Shell for JavaScript
20.3.1 Introduction
20.3.2 Import Database Sample
20.3.3 MySQL Shell
20.3.4 Documents and Collections
20.3.5 Relational Tables
20.3.6 Documents in Tables
20.4 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL Shell for Python
20.4.1 Introduction
20.4.2 Import Database Sample
20.4.3 MySQL Shell
20.4.4 Documents and Collections
20.4.5 Relational Tables
20.4.6 Documents in Tables
20.5 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL for Visual Studio
20.6 X Plugin
20.6.1 Using Secure Connections with X Plugin
20.6.2 Using X Plugin with the Caching SHA-2 Authentication Plugin
20.6.3 X Plugin Options and Variables
20.6.4 Monitoring X Plugin
21 InnoDB Cluster
21.1 Introducing InnoDB Cluster
21.2 Creating an InnoDB Cluster
21.2.1 Deployment Scenarios
21.2.2 InnoDB Cluster Requirements
21.2.3 Methods of Installing
21.2.4 Production Deployment of InnoDB Cluster
21.2.5 Sandbox Deployment of InnoDB Cluster
21.2.6 Adopting a Group Replication Deployment
21.3 Using MySQL Router with InnoDB Cluster
21.4 Working with InnoDB Cluster
21.5 Known Limitations
22 Partitioning
22.1 Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
22.2 Partitioning Types
22.2.1 RANGE Partitioning
22.2.2 LIST Partitioning
22.2.3 COLUMNS Partitioning
22.2.4 HASH Partitioning
22.2.5 KEY Partitioning
22.2.6 Subpartitioning
22.2.7 How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL
22.3 Partition Management
22.3.1 Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
22.3.2 Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
22.3.3 Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables
22.3.4 Maintenance of Partitions
22.3.5 Obtaining Information About Partitions
22.4 Partition Pruning
22.5 Partition Selection
22.6 Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
22.6.1 Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys
22.6.2 Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines
22.6.3 Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions
23 Stored Programs and Views
23.1 Defining Stored Programs
23.2 Using Stored Routines (Procedures and Functions)
23.2.1 Stored Routine Syntax
23.2.2 Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges
23.2.3 Stored Routine Metadata
23.2.4 Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
23.3 Using Triggers
23.3.1 Trigger Syntax and Examples
23.3.2 Trigger Metadata
23.4 Using the Event Scheduler
23.4.1 Event Scheduler Overview
23.4.2 Event Scheduler Configuration
23.4.3 Event Syntax
23.4.4 Event Metadata
23.4.5 Event Scheduler Status
23.4.6 The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
23.5 Using Views
23.5.1 View Syntax
23.5.2 View Processing Algorithms
23.5.3 Updatable and Insertable Views
23.5.4 The View WITH CHECK OPTION Clause
23.5.5 View Metadata
23.6 Access Control for Stored Programs and Views
23.7 Binary Logging of Stored Programs
24 INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS Table
24.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATIONS Table
24.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY Table
24.4 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMNS Table
24.5 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMN_PRIVILEGES Table
24.6 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMN_STATISTICS Table
24.7 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ENGINES Table
24.8 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA EVENTS Table
24.9 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table
24.10 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA KEY_COLUMN_USAGE Table
24.11 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA KEYWORDS Table
24.12 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA OPTIMIZER_TRACE Table
24.13 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PARAMETERS Table
24.14 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PARTITIONS Table
24.15 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PLUGINS Table
24.16 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROCESSLIST Table
24.17 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROFILING Table
24.18 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS Table
24.19 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA RESOURCE_GROUPS Table
24.20 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ROUTINES Table
24.21 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA SCHEMATA Table
24.22 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA SCHEMA_PRIVILEGES Table
24.23 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA STATISTICS Table
24.24 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ST_GEOMETRY_COLUMNS Table
24.25 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ST_SPATIAL_REFERENCE_SYSTEMS Table
24.26 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLES Table
24.27 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLESPACES Table
24.28 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLE_CONSTRAINTS Table
24.29 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLE_PRIVILEGES Table
24.30 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TRIGGERS Table
24.31 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA USER_PRIVILEGES Table
24.32 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA VIEWS Table
24.33 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.33.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE Table
24.33.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE_LRU Table
24.33.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_STATS Table
24.33.4 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CACHED_INDEXES Table
24.33.5 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET Tables
24.33.6 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET Tables
24.33.7 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX and INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX_RESET Tables
24.33.8 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_BEING_DELETED Table
24.33.9 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_CONFIG Table
24.33.10 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_DEFAULT_STOPWORD Table
24.33.11 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_DELETED Table
24.33.12 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_INDEX_CACHE Table
24.33.13 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_INDEX_TABLE Table
24.33.14 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_LOCKS Table
24.33.15 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_LOCK_WAITS Table
24.33.16 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_METRICS Table
24.33.17 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_COLUMNS Table
24.33.18 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_DATAFILES Table
24.33.19 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FIELDS Table
24.33.20 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FOREIGN Table
24.33.21 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FOREIGN_COLS Table
24.33.22 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_INDEXES Table
24.33.23 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TABLES Table
24.33.24 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TABLESPACES Table
24.33.25 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TABLESPACES_BRIEF Table
24.33.26 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TABLESTATS View
24.33.27 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_VIRTUAL Table
24.33.28 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO Table
24.33.29 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TRX Table
24.34 Thread Pool INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.34.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TP_THREAD_GROUP_STATE Table
24.34.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TP_THREAD_GROUP_STATS Table
24.34.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TP_THREAD_STATE Table
24.35 Connection-Control INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
24.35.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CONNECTION_CONTROL_FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS Table
24.36 Extensions to SHOW Statements
25 MySQL Performance Schema
25.1 Performance Schema Quick Start
25.2 Performance Schema Build Configuration
25.3 Performance Schema Startup Configuration
25.4 Performance Schema Runtime Configuration
25.4.1 Performance Schema Event Timing
25.4.2 Performance Schema Event Filtering
25.4.3 Event Pre-Filtering
25.4.4 Pre-Filtering by Instrument
25.4.5 Pre-Filtering by Object
25.4.6 Pre-Filtering by Thread
25.4.7 Pre-Filtering by Consumer
25.4.8 Example Consumer Configurations
25.4.9 Naming Instruments or Consumers for Filtering Operations
25.4.10 Determining What Is Instrumented
25.5 Performance Schema Queries
25.6 Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions
25.7 Performance Schema Status Monitoring
25.8 Performance Schema Atom and Molecule Events
25.9 Performance Schema Statement Digests and Sampling
25.10 Performance Schema General Table Characteristics
25.11 Performance Schema Table Descriptions
25.11.1 Performance Schema Table Index
25.11.2 Performance Schema Setup Tables
25.11.3 Performance Schema Instance Tables
25.11.4 Performance Schema Wait Event Tables
25.11.5 Performance Schema Stage Event Tables
25.11.6 Performance Schema Statement Event Tables
25.11.7 Performance Schema Transaction Tables
25.11.8 Performance Schema Connection Tables
25.11.9 Performance Schema Connection Attribute Tables
25.11.10 Performance Schema User Variable Tables
25.11.11 Performance Schema Replication Tables
25.11.12 Performance Schema Lock Tables
25.11.13 Performance Schema System Variable Tables
25.11.14 Performance Schema Status Variable Tables
25.11.15 Performance Schema Summary Tables
25.11.16 Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables
25.12 Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference
25.13 Performance Schema Command Options
25.14 Performance Schema System Variables
25.15 Performance Schema Status Variables
25.16 The Performance Schema Memory-Allocation Model
25.17 Performance Schema and Plugins
25.18 Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems
25.18.1 Query Profiling Using Performance Schema
26 MySQL sys Schema
26.1 Prerequisites for Using the sys Schema
26.2 Using the sys Schema
26.3 sys Schema Progress Reporting
26.4 sys Schema Object Reference
26.4.1 sys Schema Object Index
26.4.2 sys Schema Tables and Triggers
26.4.3 sys Schema Views
26.4.4 sys Schema Stored Procedures
26.4.5 sys Schema Stored Functions
27 Connectors and APIs
27.1 MySQL Connector/C
27.2 MySQL Connector/C++
27.3 MySQL Connector/J
27.4 MySQL Connector/Net
27.5 MySQL Connector/ODBC
27.6 MySQL Connector/Python
27.7 MySQL C API
27.7.1 MySQL C API Implementations
27.7.2 Simultaneous MySQL Server and Connector/C Installations
27.7.3 Example C API Client Programs
27.7.4 Building and Running C API Client Programs
27.7.5 C API Data Structures
27.7.6 C API Function Overview
27.7.7 C API Function Descriptions
27.7.8 C API Prepared Statements
27.7.9 C API Prepared Statement Data Structures
27.7.10 C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
27.7.11 C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
27.7.12 C API Threaded Function Descriptions
27.7.13 C API Client Plugin Functions
27.7.14 C API Binary Log Interface
27.7.15 C API Binary Log Data Structures
27.7.16 C API Binary Log Function Overview
27.7.17 C API Binary Log Function Descriptions
27.7.18 C API Encrypted Connection Support
27.7.19 C API Multiple Statement Execution Support
27.7.20 C API Prepared Statement Handling of Date and Time Values
27.7.21 C API Prepared CALL Statement Support
27.7.22 C API Prepared Statement Problems
27.7.23 C API Optional Result Set Metadata
27.7.24 C API Automatic Reconnection Control
27.7.25 C API Common Issues
27.8 MySQL PHP API
27.9 MySQL Perl API
27.10 MySQL Python API
27.11 MySQL Ruby APIs
27.11.1 The MySQL/Ruby API
27.11.2 The Ruby/MySQL API
27.12 MySQL Tcl API
27.13 MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
28 Extending MySQL
28.1 MySQL Internals
28.1.1 MySQL Threads
28.1.2 The MySQL Test Suite
28.2 The MySQL Plugin API
28.2.1 Types of Plugins
28.2.2 Plugin API Characteristics
28.2.3 Plugin API Components
28.2.4 Writing Plugins
28.3 MySQL Services for Components and Plugins
28.3.1 The Locking Service
28.3.2 The Keyring Service
28.4 Adding New Functions to MySQL
28.4.1 Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
28.4.2 Adding a New User-Defined Function
28.4.3 Adding a New Native Function
28.5 Debugging and Porting MySQL
28.5.1 Debugging a MySQL Server
28.5.2 Debugging a MySQL Client
28.5.3 The DBUG Package
29 MySQL Enterprise Edition
29.1 MySQL Enterprise Monitor Overview
29.2 MySQL Enterprise Backup Overview
29.3 MySQL Enterprise Security Overview
29.4 MySQL Enterprise Encryption Overview
29.5 MySQL Enterprise Audit Overview
29.6 MySQL Enterprise Firewall Overview
29.7 MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool Overview
30 MySQL Workbench
A MySQL 8.0 Frequently Asked Questions
A.1 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: General
A.2 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Storage Engines
A.3 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Server SQL Mode
A.4 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Stored Procedures and Functions
A.5 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Triggers
A.6 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Views
A.7 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: INFORMATION_SCHEMA
A.8 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Migration
A.9 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Security
A.10 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: MySQL Cluster
A.11 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
A.12 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Connectors & APIs
A.13 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Replication
A.14 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool
A.15 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: InnoDB Change Buffer
A.16 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: InnoDB Tablespace Encryption
A.17 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Virtualization Support
B Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems
B.1 Sources of Error Information
B.2 Types of Error Values
B.3 Server Error Codes and Messages
B.4 Client Error Codes and Messages
B.5 Problems and Common Errors
B.5.1 How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
B.5.2 Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
B.5.3 Administration-Related Issues
B.5.4 Query-Related Issues
B.5.5 Optimizer-Related Issues
B.5.6 Table Definition-Related Issues
B.5.7 Known Issues in MySQL
C Restrictions and Limits
C.1 Restrictions on Stored Programs
C.2 Restrictions on Condition Handling
C.3 Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
C.4 Restrictions on Subqueries
C.5 Restrictions on Views
C.6 Restrictions on XA Transactions
C.7 Restrictions on Character Sets
C.8 Restrictions on Performance Schema
C.9 Restrictions on Pluggable Authentication
C.10 Limits in MySQL
C.10.1 Limits on Joins
C.10.2 Limits on Number of Databases and Tables
C.10.3 Limits on Table Size
C.10.4 Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size
C.10.5 Windows Platform Limitations
D Indexes
General Index
C Function Index
Command Index
Function Index
INFORMATION_SCHEMA Index
Join Types Index
Operator Index
Option Index
Privileges Index
SQL Modes Index
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