Beta Draft: 2017-02-07

MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual

Abstract

This is the MySQL™ Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 8.0 through 8.0.1.

MySQL 8.0 status.  MySQL 8.0 is a development series not recommended for production use.

MySQL Cluster is currently not supported in MySQL 8.0. For information about MySQL Cluster, please see MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.

MySQL 8.0 features.  This manual describes features that are not included in every edition of MySQL 8.0; such features may not be included in the edition of MySQL 8.0 licensed to you. If you have any questions about the features included in your edition of MySQL 8.0, refer to your MySQL 8.0 license agreement or contact your Oracle sales representative.

For notes detailing the changes in each release, see the MySQL 8.0 Release Notes.

For legal information, see the Legal Notices.

For help with using MySQL, please visit either the MySQL Forums or MySQL Mailing Lists, where you can discuss your issues with other MySQL users.

For additional documentation on MySQL products, including translations of the documentation into other languages, and downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the MySQL Documentation Library.

Licensing information—MySQL 8.0.  This product may include third-party software, used under license. If you are using a Community release of MySQL 8.0, see this document for licensing information, including licensing information relating to third-party software that may be included in this Community release.

Document generated on: 2017-02-07 (revision: 50568)


Table of Contents

Preface and Legal Notices
1 General Information
1.1 About This Manual
1.2 Typographical and Syntax Conventions
1.3 Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.3.1 What is MySQL?
1.3.2 The Main Features of MySQL
1.3.3 History of MySQL
1.4 What Is New in MySQL 8.0
1.5 Server and Status Variables and Options Added, Deprecated, or Removed in MySQL 8.0
1.6 MySQL Information Sources
1.6.1 MySQL Mailing Lists
1.6.2 MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.6.3 MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.6.4 MySQL Enterprise
1.7 How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.8 MySQL Standards Compliance
1.8.1 MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.8.2 MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.8.3 How MySQL Deals with Constraints
1.9 Credits
1.9.1 Contributors to MySQL
1.9.2 Documenters and translators
1.9.3 Packages that support MySQL
1.9.4 Tools that were used to create MySQL
1.9.5 Supporters of MySQL
2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer
2.3.4 MySQL Notifier
2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.3.8 Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.4 Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository
2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle
2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle
2.5.6 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories
2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux with docker
2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with juju
2.5.9 Managing MySQL Server with systemd
2.6 Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris
2.6.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.6.2 Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS
2.7 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.8 Installing MySQL from Source
2.8.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.8.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.8.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.8.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.8.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.8.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.8.7 Generating MySQL Doxygen Documentation Content
2.9 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.9.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.9.2 Starting the Server
2.9.3 Testing the Server
2.9.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Account
2.9.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.10 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.10.1 Upgrading MySQL
2.10.2 Downgrading MySQL
2.10.3 Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt
2.10.4 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.10.5 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.11 Perl Installation Notes
2.11.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.11.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.11.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3 Using MySQL as a Document Store
3.1 Preproduction Status — Legal Notice
3.2 Key Concepts
3.3 Setting Up MySQL as a Document Store
3.3.1 Installing MySQL Shell
3.3.2 Starting MySQL Shell
3.4 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL Shell for JavaScript
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Import Database Sample
3.4.3 MySQL Shell
3.4.4 Documents and Collections
3.4.5 Relational Tables
3.4.6 Documents in Tables
3.5 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL Shell for Python
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Import Database Sample
3.5.3 MySQL Shell
3.5.4 Documents and Collections
3.5.5 Relational Tables
3.5.6 Documents in Tables
3.6 Quick-Start Guide: MySQL for Visual Studio
3.7 X Plugin
3.7.1 Using Secure Connections with X Plugin
3.7.2 X Plugin Options and Variables
3.7.3 Monitoring X Plugin
3.8 MySQL Shell User Guide
3.8.1 MySQL Shell Features
3.8.2 Getting Started with MySQL Shell
3.8.3 MySQL Shell Code Execution
3.8.4 Configuring MySQL Shell
3.8.5 Stored Sessions
3.8.6 MySQL Shell Application Log
3.8.7 Customizing MySQL Shell
4 Tutorial
4.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
4.2 Entering Queries
4.3 Creating and Using a Database
4.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database
4.3.2 Creating a Table
4.3.3 Loading Data into a Table
4.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table
4.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables
4.5 Using mysql in Batch Mode
4.6 Examples of Common Queries
4.6.1 The Maximum Value for a Column
4.6.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
4.6.3 Maximum of Column per Group
4.6.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Column
4.6.5 Using User-Defined Variables
4.6.6 Using Foreign Keys
4.6.7 Searching on Two Keys
4.6.8 Calculating Visits Per Day
4.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT
4.7 Using MySQL with Apache
5 MySQL Programs
5.1 Overview of MySQL Programs
5.2 Using MySQL Programs
5.2.1 Invoking MySQL Programs
5.2.2 Connecting to the MySQL Server
5.2.3 Specifying Program Options
5.2.4 Using Options on the Command Line
5.2.5 Program Option Modifiers
5.2.6 Using Option Files
5.2.7 Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling
5.2.8 Using Options to Set Program Variables
5.2.9 Option Defaults, Options Expecting Values, and the = Sign
5.2.10 Setting Environment Variables
5.3 MySQL Server and Server-Startup Programs
5.3.1 mysqld — The MySQL Server
5.3.2 mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
5.3.3 mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
5.3.4 mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
5.4 MySQL Installation-Related Programs
5.4.1 comp_err — Compile MySQL Error Message File
5.4.2 mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security
5.4.3 mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files
5.4.4 mysql_tzinfo_to_sql — Load the Time Zone Tables
5.4.5 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables
5.5 MySQL Client Programs
5.5.1 mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
5.5.2 mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
5.5.3 mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance Program
5.5.4 mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
5.5.5 mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
5.5.6 mysqlpump — A Database Backup Program
5.5.7 mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
5.5.8 mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
5.6 MySQL Administrative and Utility Programs
5.6.1 ibd2sdi — InnoDB Tablespace SDI Extraction Utility
5.6.2 innochecksum — Offline InnoDB File Checksum Utility
5.6.3 myisam_ftdump — Display Full-Text Index information
5.6.4 myisamchk — MyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
5.6.5 myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
5.6.6 myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
5.6.7 mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility
5.6.8 mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
5.6.9 mysqldumpslow — Summarize Slow Query Log Files
5.7 MySQL Program Development Utilities
5.7.1 mysql_config — Display Options for Compiling Clients
5.7.2 my_print_defaults — Display Options from Option Files
5.7.3 resolve_stack_dump — Resolve Numeric Stack Trace Dump to Symbols
5.8 Miscellaneous Programs
5.8.1 lz4_decompress — Decompress mysqlpump LZ4-Compressed Output
5.8.2 perror — Explain Error Codes
5.8.3 resolveip — Resolve Host name to IP Address or Vice Versa
5.8.4 zlib_decompress — Decompress mysqlpump ZLIB-Compressed Output
5.9 MySQL Program Environment Variables
6 MySQL Server Administration
6.1 The MySQL Server
6.1.1 Configuring the Server
6.1.2 Server Configuration Defaults
6.1.3 Server Option and Variable Reference
6.1.4 Server Command Options
6.1.5 Server System Variables
6.1.6 Using System Variables
6.1.7 Server Status Variables
6.1.8 Server SQL Modes
6.1.9 IPv6 Support
6.1.10 Server-Side Help
6.1.11 Server Response to Signals
6.1.12 The Server Shutdown Process
6.2 The MySQL Data Directory
6.3 The mysql System Database
6.4 MySQL Server Logs
6.4.1 Selecting General Query and Slow Query Log Output Destinations
6.4.2 The Error Log
6.4.3 The General Query Log
6.4.4 The Binary Log
6.4.5 The Slow Query Log
6.4.6 The DDL Log
6.4.7 Server Log Maintenance
6.5 Server Components
6.6 MySQL Server Plugins
6.6.1 Server Plugins Available
6.6.2 Installing and Uninstalling Plugins
6.6.3 Obtaining Server Plugin Information
6.6.4 The Rewriter Query Rewrite Plugin
6.6.5 Version Tokens
6.7 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine
6.7.1 Setting Up Multiple Data Directories
6.7.2 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Windows
6.7.3 Running Multiple MySQL Instances on Unix
6.7.4 Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
7 Security
7.1 General Security Issues
7.1.1 Security Guidelines
7.1.2 Keeping Passwords Secure
7.1.3 Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
7.1.4 Security-Related mysqld Options and Variables
7.1.5 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
7.1.6 Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
7.1.7 Client Programming Security Guidelines
7.2 The MySQL Access Privilege System
7.2.1 Privileges Provided by MySQL
7.2.2 Grant Tables
7.2.3 Specifying Account Names
7.2.4 Specifying Role Names
7.2.5 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
7.2.6 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
7.2.7 When Privilege Changes Take Effect
7.2.8 Troubleshooting Problems Connecting to MySQL
7.3 MySQL User Account Management
7.3.1 User Names and Passwords
7.3.2 Adding User Accounts
7.3.3 Removing User Accounts
7.3.4 Using Roles
7.3.5 Setting Account Resource Limits
7.3.6 Assigning Account Passwords
7.3.7 Password Expiration Policy
7.3.8 Password Expiration and Sandbox Mode
7.3.9 Pluggable Authentication
7.3.10 Proxy Users
7.3.11 User Account Locking
7.3.12 SQL-Based MySQL Account Activity Auditing
7.4 Using Secure Connections
7.4.1 OpenSSL Versus yaSSL
7.4.2 Building MySQL with Support for Secure Connections
7.4.3 Secure Connection Protocols and Ciphers
7.4.4 Configuring MySQL to Use Secure Connections
7.4.5 Command Options for Secure Connections
7.4.6 Creating SSL and RSA Certificates and Keys
7.4.7 Connecting to MySQL Remotely from Windows with SSH
7.5 Security Plugins
7.5.1 Authentication Plugins
7.5.2 The Connection-Control Plugin
7.5.3 The Password Validation Plugin
7.5.4 The MySQL Keyring
8 Backup and Recovery
8.1 Backup and Recovery Types
8.2 Database Backup Methods
8.3 Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
8.3.1 Establishing a Backup Policy
8.3.2 Using Backups for Recovery
8.3.3 Backup Strategy Summary
8.4 Using mysqldump for Backups
8.4.1 Dumping Data in SQL Format with mysqldump
8.4.2 Reloading SQL-Format Backups
8.4.3 Dumping Data in Delimited-Text Format with mysqldump
8.4.4 Reloading Delimited-Text Format Backups
8.4.5 mysqldump Tips
8.5 Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log
8.5.1 Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Times
8.5.2 Point-in-Time Recovery Using Event Positions
8.6 MyISAM Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
8.6.1 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
8.6.2 How to Check MyISAM Tables for Errors
8.6.3 How to Repair MyISAM Tables
8.6.4 MyISAM Table Optimization
8.6.5 Setting Up a MyISAM Table Maintenance Schedule
9 Optimization
9.1 Optimization Overview
9.2 Optimizing SQL Statements
9.2.1 Optimizing SELECT Statements
9.2.2 Optimizing Data Change Statements
9.2.3 Optimizing Database Privileges
9.2.4 Optimizing INFORMATION_SCHEMA Queries
9.2.5 Optimizing Performance Schema Queries
9.2.6 Other Optimization Tips
9.3 Optimization and Indexes
9.3.1 How MySQL Uses Indexes
9.3.2 Using Primary Keys
9.3.3 Using Foreign Keys
9.3.4 Column Indexes
9.3.5 Multiple-Column Indexes
9.3.6 Verifying Index Usage
9.3.7 InnoDB and MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
9.3.8 Comparison of B-Tree and Hash Indexes
9.3.9 Optimizer Use of Generated Column Indexes
9.3.10 Invisible Indexes
9.3.11 Descending Indexes
9.4 Optimizing Database Structure
9.4.1 Optimizing Data Size
9.4.2 Optimizing MySQL Data Types
9.4.3 Optimizing for Many Tables
9.4.4 Internal Temporary Table Use in MySQL
9.5 Optimizing for InnoDB Tables
9.5.1 Optimizing Storage Layout for InnoDB Tables
9.5.2 Optimizing InnoDB Transaction Management
9.5.3 Optimizing InnoDB Read-Only Transactions
9.5.4 Optimizing InnoDB Redo Logging
9.5.5 Bulk Data Loading for InnoDB Tables
9.5.6 Optimizing InnoDB Queries
9.5.7 Optimizing InnoDB DDL Operations
9.5.8 Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O
9.5.9 Optimizing InnoDB Configuration Variables
9.5.10 Optimizing InnoDB for Systems with Many Tables
9.6 Optimizing for MyISAM Tables
9.6.1 Optimizing MyISAM Queries
9.6.2 Bulk Data Loading for MyISAM Tables
9.6.3 Speed of REPAIR TABLE Statements
9.7 Optimizing for MEMORY Tables
9.8 Understanding the Query Execution Plan
9.8.1 Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
9.8.2 EXPLAIN Output Format
9.8.3 Extended EXPLAIN Output Format
9.8.4 Obtaining Execution Plan Information for a Named Connection
9.8.5 Estimating Query Performance
9.9 Controlling the Query Optimizer
9.9.1 Controlling Query Plan Evaluation
9.9.2 Controlling Switchable Optimizations
9.9.3 Optimizer Hints
9.9.4 Index Hints
9.9.5 The Optimizer Cost Model
9.9.6 Optimizer Statistics
9.10 Buffering and Caching
9.10.1 InnoDB Buffer Pool Optimization
9.10.2 The MyISAM Key Cache
9.10.3 The MySQL Query Cache
9.10.4 Caching of Prepared Statements and Stored Programs
9.11 Optimizing Locking Operations
9.11.1 Internal Locking Methods
9.11.2 Table Locking Issues
9.11.3 Concurrent Inserts
9.11.4 Metadata Locking
9.11.5 External Locking
9.12 Optimizing the MySQL Server
9.12.1 Optimizing Disk I/O
9.12.2 Using Symbolic Links
9.12.3 Optimizing Memory Use
9.12.4 Optimizing Network Use
9.13 Measuring Performance (Benchmarking)
9.13.1 Measuring the Speed of Expressions and Functions
9.13.2 Using Your Own Benchmarks
9.13.3 Measuring Performance with performance_schema
9.14 Examining Thread Information
9.14.1 Thread Command Values
9.14.2 General Thread States
9.14.3 Query Cache Thread States
9.14.4 Replication Master Thread States
9.14.5 Replication Slave I/O Thread States
9.14.6 Replication Slave SQL Thread States
9.14.7 Replication Slave Connection Thread States
9.14.8 Event Scheduler Thread States
10 Language Structure
10.1 Literal Values
10.1.1 String Literals
10.1.2 Number Literals
10.1.3 Date and Time Literals
10.1.4 Hexadecimal Literals
10.1.5 Bit-Value Literals
10.1.6 Boolean Literals
10.1.7 NULL Values
10.2 Schema Object Names
10.2.1 Identifier Qualifiers
10.2.2 Identifier Case Sensitivity
10.2.3 Mapping of Identifiers to File Names
10.2.4 Function Name Parsing and Resolution
10.3 Keywords and Reserved Words
10.4 User-Defined Variables
10.5 Expression Syntax
10.6 Comment Syntax
11 Globalization
11.1 Character Set Support
11.1.1 Character Sets and Collations in General
11.1.2 Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
11.1.3 Specifying Character Sets and Collations
11.1.4 Connection Character Sets and Collations
11.1.5 Configuring Application Character Set and Collation
11.1.6 Error Message Character Set
11.1.7 Column Character Set Conversion
11.1.8 Collation Issues
11.1.9 Unicode Support
11.1.10 Supported Character Sets and Collations
11.2 Setting the Error Message Language
11.3 Adding a Character Set
11.3.1 Character Definition Arrays
11.3.2 String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets
11.3.3 Multi-Byte Character Support for Complex Character Sets
11.4 Adding a Collation to a Character Set
11.4.1 Collation Implementation Types
11.4.2 Choosing a Collation ID
11.4.3 Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set
11.4.4 Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set
11.5 Character Set Configuration
11.6 MySQL Server Time Zone Support
11.6.1 Staying Current with Time Zone Changes
11.6.2 Time Zone Leap Second Support
11.7 MySQL Server Locale Support
12 Data Types
12.1 Data Type Overview
12.1.1 Numeric Type Overview
12.1.2 Date and Time Type Overview
12.1.3 String Type Overview
12.2 Numeric Types
12.2.1 Integer Types (Exact Value) - INTEGER, INT, SMALLINT, TINYINT, MEDIUMINT, BIGINT
12.2.2 Fixed-Point Types (Exact Value) - DECIMAL, NUMERIC
12.2.3 Floating-Point Types (Approximate Value) - FLOAT, DOUBLE
12.2.4 Bit-Value Type - BIT
12.2.5 Numeric Type Attributes
12.2.6 Out-of-Range and Overflow Handling
12.3 Date and Time Types
12.3.1 The DATE, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP Types
12.3.2 The TIME Type
12.3.3 The YEAR Type
12.3.4 Migrating YEAR(2) Columns to YEAR(4)
12.3.5 Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME
12.3.6 Fractional Seconds in Time Values
12.3.7 Conversion Between Date and Time Types
12.3.8 Two-Digit Years in Dates
12.4 String Types
12.4.1 The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
12.4.2 The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
12.4.3 The BLOB and TEXT Types
12.4.4 The ENUM Type
12.4.5 The SET Type
12.5 Extensions for Spatial Data
12.5.1 Spatial Data Types
12.5.2 The OpenGIS Geometry Model
12.5.3 Using Spatial Data
12.6 The JSON Data Type
12.7 Data Type Default Values
12.8 Data Type Storage Requirements
12.9 Choosing the Right Type for a Column
12.10 Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
13 Functions and Operators
13.1 Function and Operator Reference
13.2 Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
13.3 Operators
13.3.1 Operator Precedence
13.3.2 Comparison Functions and Operators
13.3.3 Logical Operators
13.3.4 Assignment Operators
13.4 Control Flow Functions
13.5 String Functions
13.5.1 String Comparison Functions
13.5.2 Regular Expressions
13.5.3 Character Set and Collation of Function Results
13.6 Numeric Functions and Operators
13.6.1 Arithmetic Operators
13.6.2 Mathematical Functions
13.7 Date and Time Functions
13.8 What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
13.9 Full-Text Search Functions
13.9.1 Natural Language Full-Text Searches
13.9.2 Boolean Full-Text Searches
13.9.3 Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
13.9.4 Full-Text Stopwords
13.9.5 Full-Text Restrictions
13.9.6 Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
13.9.7 Adding a Collation for Full-Text Indexing
13.9.8 ngram Full-Text Parser
13.9.9 MeCab Full-Text Parser Plugin
13.10 Cast Functions and Operators
13.11 XML Functions
13.12 Bit Functions and Operators
13.13 Encryption and Compression Functions
13.14 Information Functions
13.15 Spatial Analysis Functions
13.15.1 Spatial Function Reference
13.15.2 Argument Handling by Spatial Functions
13.15.3 Functions That Create Geometry Values from WKT Values
13.15.4 Functions That Create Geometry Values from WKB Values
13.15.5 MySQL-Specific Functions That Create Geometry Values
13.15.6 Geometry Format Conversion Functions
13.15.7 Geometry Property Functions
13.15.8 Spatial Operator Functions
13.15.9 Functions That Test Spatial Relations Between Geometry Objects
13.15.10 Spatial Geohash Functions
13.15.11 Spatial GeoJSON Functions
13.15.12 Spatial Convenience Functions
13.16 JSON Functions
13.16.1 JSON Function Reference
13.16.2 Functions That Create JSON Values
13.16.3 Functions That Search JSON Values
13.16.4 Functions That Modify JSON Values
13.16.5 Functions That Return JSON Value Attributes
13.16.6 JSON Path Syntax
13.17 Functions Used with Global Transaction IDs
13.18 Aggregate (GROUP BY) Functions
13.18.1 Aggregate (GROUP BY) Function Descriptions
13.18.2 GROUP BY Modifiers
13.18.3 MySQL Handling of GROUP BY
13.18.4 Detection of Functional Dependence
13.19 Internal Functions
13.20 Miscellaneous Functions
13.21 Precision Math
13.21.1 Types of Numeric Values
13.21.2 DECIMAL Data Type Characteristics
13.21.3 Expression Handling
13.21.4 Rounding Behavior
13.21.5 Precision Math Examples
14 SQL Statement Syntax
14.1 Data Definition Statements
14.1.1 ALTER DATABASE Syntax
14.1.2 ALTER EVENT Syntax
14.1.3 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
14.1.4 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax
14.1.5 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
14.1.6 ALTER SERVER Syntax
14.1.7 ALTER TABLE Syntax
14.1.8 ALTER VIEW Syntax
14.1.9 CREATE DATABASE Syntax
14.1.10 CREATE EVENT Syntax
14.1.11 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
14.1.12 CREATE INDEX Syntax
14.1.13 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
14.1.14 CREATE SERVER Syntax
14.1.15 CREATE TABLE Syntax
14.1.16 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax
14.1.17 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
14.1.18 CREATE VIEW Syntax
14.1.19 DROP DATABASE Syntax
14.1.20 DROP EVENT Syntax
14.1.21 DROP FUNCTION Syntax
14.1.22 DROP INDEX Syntax
14.1.23 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION Syntax
14.1.24 DROP SERVER Syntax
14.1.25 DROP TABLE Syntax
14.1.26 DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
14.1.27 DROP TRIGGER Syntax
14.1.28 DROP VIEW Syntax
14.1.29 RENAME TABLE Syntax
14.1.30 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
14.2 Data Manipulation Statements
14.2.1 CALL Syntax
14.2.2 DELETE Syntax
14.2.3 DO Syntax
14.2.4 HANDLER Syntax
14.2.5 INSERT Syntax
14.2.6 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
14.2.7 LOAD XML Syntax
14.2.8 REPLACE Syntax
14.2.9 SELECT Syntax
14.2.10 Subquery Syntax
14.2.11 UPDATE Syntax
14.3 Transactional and Locking Statements
14.3.1 START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax
14.3.2 Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
14.3.3 Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
14.3.4 SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, and RELEASE SAVEPOINT Syntax
14.3.5 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
14.3.6 SET TRANSACTION Syntax
14.3.7 XA Transactions
14.4 Replication Statements
14.4.1 SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
14.4.2 SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
14.4.3 SQL Statements for Controlling Group Replication
14.5 Prepared SQL Statement Syntax
14.5.1 PREPARE Syntax
14.5.2 EXECUTE Syntax
14.5.3 DEALLOCATE PREPARE Syntax
14.6 Compound-Statement Syntax
14.6.1 BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax
14.6.2 Statement Label Syntax
14.6.3 DECLARE Syntax
14.6.4 Variables in Stored Programs
14.6.5 Flow Control Statements
14.6.6 Cursors
14.6.7 Condition Handling
14.7 Database Administration Statements
14.7.1 Account Management Statements
14.7.2 Table Maintenance Statements
14.7.3 Component, Plugin, and User-Defined Function Statements
14.7.4 SET Syntax
14.7.5 SHOW Syntax
14.7.6 Other Administrative Statements
14.8 Utility Statements
14.8.1 DESCRIBE Syntax
14.8.2 EXPLAIN Syntax
14.8.3 HELP Syntax
14.8.4 USE Syntax
15 MySQL Data Dictionary
15.1 Data Dictionary Schema
15.2 Removal of File-based Metadata Storage
15.3 Transactional Storage of Dictionary Data
15.4 Dictionary Object Cache
15.5 INFORMATION_SCHEMA and Data Dictionary Integration
15.6 Data Dictionary Usage Differences
15.7 Data Dictionary Limitations
16 The InnoDB Storage Engine
16.1 Introduction to InnoDB
16.1.1 Benefits of Using InnoDB Tables
16.1.2 Best Practices for InnoDB Tables
16.1.3 Verifying that InnoDB is the Default Storage Engine
16.1.4 Testing and Benchmarking with InnoDB
16.2 InnoDB and the ACID Model
16.3 InnoDB Multi-Versioning
16.4 InnoDB Architecture
16.4.1 Buffer Pool
16.4.2 Change Buffer
16.4.3 Adaptive Hash Index
16.4.4 Redo Log Buffer
16.4.5 System Tablespace
16.4.6 Doublewrite Buffer
16.4.7 Undo Logs
16.4.8 File-Per-Table Tablespaces
16.4.9 General Tablespaces
16.4.10 Undo Tablespace
16.4.11 Temporary Tablespace
16.4.12 Redo Log
16.5 InnoDB Locking and Transaction Model
16.5.1 InnoDB Locking
16.5.2 InnoDB Transaction Model
16.5.3 Locks Set by Different SQL Statements in InnoDB
16.5.4 Phantom Rows
16.5.5 Deadlocks in InnoDB
16.6 InnoDB Configuration
16.6.1 InnoDB Startup Configuration
16.6.2 Configuring InnoDB for Read-Only Operation
16.6.3 InnoDB Buffer Pool Configuration
16.6.4 Configuring InnoDB Change Buffering
16.6.5 Configuring Thread Concurrency for InnoDB
16.6.6 Configuring the Number of Background InnoDB I/O Threads
16.6.7 Configuring the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate
16.6.8 Configuring Spin Lock Polling
16.6.9 Configuring InnoDB Purge Scheduling
16.6.10 Configuring Optimizer Statistics for InnoDB
16.6.11 Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages
16.7 InnoDB Tablespaces
16.7.1 Resizing the InnoDB System Tablespace
16.7.2 Changing the Number or Size of InnoDB Redo Log Files
16.7.3 Using Raw Disk Partitions for the System Tablespace
16.7.4 InnoDB File-Per-Table Tablespaces
16.7.5 Creating a File-Per-Table Tablespace Outside the Data Directory
16.7.6 Copying File-Per-Table Tablespaces to Another Server
16.7.7 Storing InnoDB Undo Logs in Separate Tablespaces
16.7.8 Truncating Undo Logs That Reside in Undo Tablespaces
16.7.9 InnoDB General Tablespaces
16.7.10 InnoDB Tablespace Encryption
16.8 InnoDB Tables and Indexes
16.8.1 Creating InnoDB Tables
16.8.2 Physical Row Structure of InnoDB Tables
16.8.3 Moving or Copying InnoDB Tables to Another Machine
16.8.4 Converting Tables from MyISAM to InnoDB
16.8.5 AUTO_INCREMENT Handling in InnoDB
16.8.6 InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints
16.8.7 Limits on InnoDB Tables
16.8.8 Clustered and Secondary Indexes
16.8.9 InnoDB FULLTEXT Indexes
16.8.10 Physical Structure of an InnoDB Index
16.8.11 Sorted Index Builds
16.9 InnoDB Table and Page Compression
16.9.1 InnoDB Table Compression
16.9.2 InnoDB Page Compression
16.10 InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats
16.10.1 Overview of InnoDB Row Storage
16.10.2 Specifying the Row Format for a Table
16.10.3 DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats
16.10.4 COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats
16.11 InnoDB Disk I/O and File Space Management
16.11.1 InnoDB Disk I/O
16.11.2 File Space Management
16.11.3 InnoDB Checkpoints
16.11.4 Defragmenting a Table
16.11.5 Reclaiming Disk Space with TRUNCATE TABLE
16.12 InnoDB and Online DDL
16.12.1 Overview of Online DDL
16.12.2 Performance and Concurrency Considerations for Online DDL
16.12.3 SQL Syntax for Online DDL
16.12.4 Combining or Separating DDL Statements
16.12.5 Examples of Online DDL
16.12.6 Implementation Details of Online DDL
16.12.7 How Crash Recovery Works with Online DDL
16.12.8 Online DDL for Partitioned InnoDB Tables
16.12.9 Limitations of Online DDL
16.13 InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
16.14 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
16.14.1 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables about Compression
16.14.2 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Transaction and Locking Information
16.14.3 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA System Tables
16.14.4 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA FULLTEXT Index Tables
16.14.5 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Buffer Pool Tables
16.14.6 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Metrics Table
16.14.7 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Temporary Table Information Table
16.14.8 Retrieving InnoDB Tablespace Metadata from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
16.15 InnoDB Integration with MySQL Performance Schema
16.15.1 Monitoring ALTER TABLE Progress for InnoDB Tables Using Performance Schema
16.15.2 Monitoring InnoDB Mutex Waits Using Performance Schema
16.16 InnoDB Monitors
16.16.1 InnoDB Monitor Types
16.16.2 Enabling InnoDB Monitors
16.16.3 InnoDB Standard Monitor and Lock Monitor Output
16.17 InnoDB Backup and Recovery
16.17.1 The InnoDB Recovery Process
16.17.2 Tablespace Discovery During Crash Recovery
16.18 InnoDB and MySQL Replication
16.19 InnoDB memcached Plugin
16.19.1 Benefits of the InnoDB memcached Plugin
16.19.2 InnoDB memcached Architecture
16.19.3 Setting Up the InnoDB memcached Plugin
16.19.4 InnoDB memcached Multiple get and Range Query Support
16.19.5 Security Considerations for the InnoDB memcached Plugin
16.19.6 Writing Applications for the InnoDB memcached Plugin
16.19.7 The InnoDB memcached Plugin and Replication
16.19.8 InnoDB memcached Plugin Internals
16.19.9 Troubleshooting the InnoDB memcached Plugin
16.20 InnoDB Troubleshooting
16.20.1 Troubleshooting InnoDB I/O Problems
16.20.2 Forcing InnoDB Recovery
16.20.3 Troubleshooting InnoDB Data Dictionary Operations
16.20.4 InnoDB Error Handling
17 Alternative Storage Engines
17.1 Setting the Storage Engine
17.2 The MyISAM Storage Engine
17.2.1 MyISAM Startup Options
17.2.2 Space Needed for Keys
17.2.3 MyISAM Table Storage Formats
17.2.4 MyISAM Table Problems
17.3 The MEMORY Storage Engine
17.4 The CSV Storage Engine
17.4.1 Repairing and Checking CSV Tables
17.4.2 CSV Limitations
17.5 The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
17.6 The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
17.7 The MERGE Storage Engine
17.7.1 MERGE Table Advantages and Disadvantages
17.7.2 MERGE Table Problems
17.8 The FEDERATED Storage Engine
17.8.1 FEDERATED Storage Engine Overview
17.8.2 How to Create FEDERATED Tables
17.8.3 FEDERATED Storage Engine Notes and Tips
17.8.4 FEDERATED Storage Engine Resources
17.9 The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
17.10 Other Storage Engines
17.11 Overview of MySQL Storage Engine Architecture
17.11.1 Pluggable Storage Engine Architecture
17.11.2 The Common Database Server Layer
18 High Availability and Scalability
18.1 Using ZFS Replication
18.1.1 Using ZFS for File System Replication
18.1.2 Configuring MySQL for ZFS Replication
18.1.3 Handling MySQL Recovery with ZFS
18.2 Using MySQL with memcached
18.2.1 Installing memcached
18.2.2 Using memcached
18.2.3 Developing a memcached Application
18.2.4 Getting memcached Statistics
18.2.5 memcached FAQ
19 Replication
19.1 Configuring Replication
19.1.1 Binary Log File Position Based Replication Configuration Overview
19.1.2 Setting Up Binary Log File Position Based Replication
19.1.3 Replication with Global Transaction Identifiers
19.1.4 MySQL Multi-Source Replication
19.1.5 Changing Replication Modes on Online Servers
19.1.6 Replication and Binary Logging Options and Variables
19.1.7 Common Replication Administration Tasks
19.2 Replication Implementation
19.2.1 Replication Formats
19.2.2 Replication Implementation Details
19.2.3 Replication Channels
19.2.4 Replication Relay and Status Logs
19.2.5 How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules
19.3 Replication Solutions
19.3.1 Using Replication for Backups
19.3.2 Handling an Unexpected Halt of a Replication Slave
19.3.3 Monitoring Row-based Replication
19.3.4 Using Replication with Different Master and Slave Storage Engines
19.3.5 Using Replication for Scale-Out
19.3.6 Replicating Different Databases to Different Slaves
19.3.7 Improving Replication Performance
19.3.8 Switching Masters During Failover
19.3.9 Setting Up Replication to Use Secure Connections
19.3.10 Semisynchronous Replication
19.3.11 Delayed Replication
19.4 Replication Notes and Tips
19.4.1 Replication Features and Issues
19.4.2 Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
19.4.3 Upgrading a Replication Setup
19.4.4 Troubleshooting Replication
19.4.5 How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
20 Partitioning
20.1 Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
20.2 Partitioning Types
20.2.1 RANGE Partitioning
20.2.2 LIST Partitioning
20.2.3 COLUMNS Partitioning
20.2.4 HASH Partitioning
20.2.5 KEY Partitioning
20.2.6 Subpartitioning
20.2.7 How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL
20.3 Partition Management
20.3.1 Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
20.3.2 Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
20.3.3 Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables
20.3.4 Maintenance of Partitions
20.3.5 Obtaining Information About Partitions
20.4 Partition Pruning
20.5 Partition Selection
20.6 Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
20.6.1 Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys
20.6.2 Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines
20.6.3 Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions
21 Stored Programs and Views
21.1 Defining Stored Programs
21.2 Using Stored Routines (Procedures and Functions)
21.2.1 Stored Routine Syntax
21.2.2 Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges
21.2.3 Stored Routine Metadata
21.2.4 Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and LAST_INSERT_ID()
21.3 Using Triggers
21.3.1 Trigger Syntax and Examples
21.3.2 Trigger Metadata
21.4 Using the Event Scheduler
21.4.1 Event Scheduler Overview
21.4.2 Event Scheduler Configuration
21.4.3 Event Syntax
21.4.4 Event Metadata
21.4.5 Event Scheduler Status
21.4.6 The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
21.5 Using Views
21.5.1 View Syntax
21.5.2 View Processing Algorithms
21.5.3 Updatable and Insertable Views
21.5.4 The View WITH CHECK OPTION Clause
21.5.5 View Metadata
21.6 Access Control for Stored Programs and Views
21.7 Binary Logging of Stored Programs
22 INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
22.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS Table
22.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATIONS Table
22.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY Table
22.4 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMNS Table
22.5 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLUMN_PRIVILEGES Table
22.6 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ENGINES Table
22.7 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA EVENTS Table
22.8 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table
22.9 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA KEY_COLUMN_USAGE Table
22.10 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA OPTIMIZER_TRACE Table
22.11 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PARAMETERS Table
22.12 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PARTITIONS Table
22.13 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PLUGINS Table
22.14 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROCESSLIST Table
22.15 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA PROFILING Table
22.16 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS Table
22.17 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ROUTINES Table
22.18 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA SCHEMATA Table
22.19 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA SCHEMA_PRIVILEGES Table
22.20 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA STATISTICS and STATISTICS_DYNAMIC Tables
22.21 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ST_GEOMETRY_COLUMNS Table
22.22 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA ST_SPATIAL_REFERENCE_SYSTEMS Table
22.23 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLES and TABLES_DYNAMIC Tables
22.24 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLESPACES Table
22.25 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLE_CONSTRAINTS Table
22.26 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TABLE_PRIVILEGES Table
22.27 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA TRIGGERS Table
22.28 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA USER_PRIVILEGES Table
22.29 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA VIEWS Table
22.30 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
22.30.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE Table
22.30.2 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE_LRU Table
22.30.3 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_STATS Table
22.30.4 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CACHED_INDEXES Table
22.30.5 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET Tables
22.30.6 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET Tables
22.30.7 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX and INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX_RESET Tables
22.30.8 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_BEING_DELETED Table
22.30.9 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_CONFIG Table
22.30.10 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_DEFAULT_STOPWORD Table
22.30.11 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_DELETED Table
22.30.12 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_INDEX_CACHE Table
22.30.13 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_FT_INDEX_TABLE Table
22.30.14 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_LOCKS Table
22.30.15 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_LOCK_WAITS Table
22.30.16 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_METRICS Table
22.30.17 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_COLUMNS Table
22.30.18 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_DATAFILES Table
22.30.19 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_FIELDS Table
22.30.20 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN Table
22.30.21 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN_COLS Table
22.30.22 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_INDEXES Table
22.30.23 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_TABLES Table
22.30.24 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_TABLESPACES Table
22.30.25 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_TABLESTATS View
22.30.26 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_SYS_VIRTUAL Table
22.30.27 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO Table
22.30.28 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA INNODB_TRX Table
22.31 Connection-Control INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
22.31.1 The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CONNECTION_CONTROL_FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS Table
22.32 Extensions to SHOW Statements
23 MySQL Performance Schema
23.1 Performance Schema Quick Start
23.2 Performance Schema Build and Startup Configuration
23.2.1 Performance Schema Build Configuration
23.2.2 Performance Schema Startup Configuration
23.3 Performance Schema Runtime Configuration
23.3.1 Performance Schema Event Timing
23.3.2 Performance Schema Event Filtering
23.3.3 Event Pre-Filtering
23.3.4 Pre-Filtering by Instrument
23.3.5 Pre-Filtering by Object
23.3.6 Pre-Filtering by Thread
23.3.7 Pre-Filtering by Consumer
23.3.8 Example Consumer Configurations
23.3.9 Naming Instruments or Consumers for Filtering Operations
23.3.10 Determining What Is Instrumented
23.4 Performance Schema Queries
23.5 Performance Schema Instrument Naming Conventions
23.6 Performance Schema Status Monitoring
23.7 Performance Schema Atom and Molecule Events
23.8 Performance Schema Statement Digests
23.9 Performance Schema General Table Characteristics
23.10 Performance Schema Table Descriptions
23.10.1 Performance Schema Table Index
23.10.2 Performance Schema Setup Tables
23.10.3 Performance Schema Instance Tables
23.10.4 Performance Schema Wait Event Tables
23.10.5 Performance Schema Stage Event Tables
23.10.6 Performance Schema Statement Event Tables
23.10.7 Performance Schema Transaction Tables
23.10.8 Performance Schema Connection Tables
23.10.9 Performance Schema Connection Attribute Tables
23.10.10 Performance Schema User Variable Tables
23.10.11 Performance Schema Replication Tables
23.10.12 Performance Schema Lock Tables
23.10.13 Performance Schema System Variable Tables
23.10.14 Performance Schema Status Variable Tables
23.10.15 Performance Schema Summary Tables
23.10.16 Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables
23.11 Performance Schema Option and Variable Reference
23.12 Performance Schema Command Options
23.13 Performance Schema System Variables
23.14 Performance Schema Status Variables
23.15 The Performance Schema Memory-Allocation Model
23.16 Performance Schema and Plugins
23.17 Using the Performance Schema to Diagnose Problems
23.17.1 Query Profiling Using Performance Schema
24 MySQL sys Schema
24.1 Prerequisites for Using the sys Schema
24.2 Using the sys Schema
24.3 sys Schema Progress Reporting
24.4 sys Schema Object Reference
24.4.1 sys Schema Object Index
24.4.2 sys Schema Tables and Triggers
24.4.3 sys Schema Views
24.4.4 sys Schema Stored Procedures
24.4.5 sys Schema Stored Functions
25 Connectors and APIs
25.1 MySQL Connector/ODBC
25.2 MySQL Connector/Net
25.3 MySQL Connector/J
25.4 MySQL Connector/C++
25.5 MySQL Connector/C
25.6 MySQL Connector/Python
25.7 MySQL C API
25.7.1 MySQL C API Implementations
25.7.2 Simultaneous MySQL Server and Connector/C Installations
25.7.3 Example C API Client Programs
25.7.4 Building and Running C API Client Programs
25.7.5 C API Data Structures
25.7.6 C API Function Overview
25.7.7 C API Function Descriptions
25.7.8 C API Prepared Statements
25.7.9 C API Prepared Statement Data Structures
25.7.10 C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
25.7.11 C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
25.7.12 C API Threaded Function Descriptions
25.7.13 C API Client Plugin Functions
25.7.14 Common Questions and Problems When Using the C API
25.7.15 Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior
25.7.16 C API Support for Multiple Statement Execution
25.7.17 C API Prepared Statement Problems
25.7.18 C API Prepared Statement Handling of Date and Time Values
25.7.19 C API Support for Prepared CALL Statements
25.8 MySQL PHP API
25.9 MySQL Perl API
25.10 MySQL Python API
25.11 MySQL Ruby APIs
25.11.1 The MySQL/Ruby API
25.11.2 The Ruby/MySQL API
25.12 MySQL Tcl API
25.13 MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
26 Extending MySQL
26.1 MySQL Internals
26.1.1 MySQL Threads
26.1.2 The MySQL Test Suite
26.2 The MySQL Plugin API
26.2.1 Types of Plugins
26.2.2 Plugin API Characteristics
26.2.3 Plugin API Components
26.2.4 Writing Plugins
26.3 MySQL Services for Plugins
26.3.1 The Locking Service
26.3.2 The Keyring Service
26.4 Adding New Functions to MySQL
26.4.1 Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
26.4.2 Adding a New User-Defined Function
26.4.3 Adding a New Native Function
26.5 Debugging and Porting MySQL
26.5.1 Debugging a MySQL Server
26.5.2 Debugging a MySQL Client
26.5.3 The DBUG Package
27 MySQL Enterprise Edition
27.1 MySQL Enterprise Monitor Overview
27.2 MySQL Enterprise Backup Overview
27.3 MySQL Enterprise Security Overview
27.4 MySQL Enterprise Encryption Overview
27.5 MySQL Enterprise Audit Overview
27.6 MySQL Enterprise Firewall Overview
27.7 MySQL Enterprise Thread Pool Overview
28 MySQL Workbench
A MySQL 8.0 Frequently Asked Questions
A.1 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: General
A.2 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Storage Engines
A.3 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Server SQL Mode
A.4 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Stored Procedures and Functions
A.5 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Triggers
A.6 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Views
A.7 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: INFORMATION_SCHEMA
A.8 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Migration
A.9 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Security
A.10 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: MySQL Cluster
A.11 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets
A.12 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Connectors & APIs
A.13 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Replication
A.14 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: InnoDB Change Buffer
A.15 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: InnoDB Tablespace Encryption
A.16 MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Virtualization Support
B Errors, Error Codes, and Common Problems
B.1 Sources of Error Information
B.2 Types of Error Values
B.3 Server Error Codes and Messages
B.4 Client Error Codes and Messages
B.5 Problems and Common Errors
B.5.1 How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
B.5.2 Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
B.5.3 Administration-Related Issues
B.5.4 Query-Related Issues
B.5.5 Optimizer-Related Issues
B.5.6 Table Definition-Related Issues
B.5.7 Known Issues in MySQL
C Restrictions and Limits
C.1 Restrictions on Stored Programs
C.2 Restrictions on Condition Handling
C.3 Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
C.4 Restrictions on Subqueries
C.5 Restrictions on Views
C.6 Restrictions on XA Transactions
C.7 Restrictions on Character Sets
C.8 Restrictions on Performance Schema
C.9 Restrictions on Pluggable Authentication
C.10 Limits in MySQL
C.10.1 Limits on Joins
C.10.2 Limits on Number of Databases and Tables
C.10.3 Limits on Table Size
C.10.4 Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size
C.10.5 Windows Platform Limitations
D Indexes
General Index
C Function Index
Command Index
Function Index
INFORMATION_SCHEMA Index
Join Types Index
Operator Index
Option Index
Privileges Index
SQL Modes Index
Statement/Syntax Index
Status Variable Index
System Variable Index
Transaction Isolation Level Index
MySQL Glossary