OPTIONS

mongo

Description

mongo

mongo is an interactive JavaScript shell interface to MongoDB, which provides a powerful interface for systems administrators as well as a way for developers to test queries and operations directly with the database. mongo also provides a fully functional JavaScript environment for use with a MongoDB. This document addresses the basic invocation of the mongo shell and an overview of its usage.

Interface

Options

mongo
--shell

Enables the shell interface after evaluating a JavaScript file. If you invoke the mongo command and specify a JavaScript file as an argument, or use --eval to specify JavaScript on the command line, the --shell option provides the user with a shell prompt after the file finishes executing.

--nodb

Prevents the shell from connecting to any database instances. Later, to connect to a database within the shell, see Opening New Connections.

--norc

Prevents the shell from sourcing and evaluating ~/.mongorc.js on start up.

--quiet

Silences output from the shell during the connection process.

--port <port>

Specifies the port where the mongod or mongos instance is listening. Unless specified mongo connects to mongod instances on port 27017, which is the default mongod port.

--host <hostname>

specifies the host where the mongod or mongos is running to connect to as <hostname>. By default mongo will attempt to connect to a MongoDB process running on the localhost.

To connect to a replica set, specify the replica set name and a seed list of set members. Use the following form:

<replSetName>/<hostname1><:port>,<hostname2><:port>,<...>
--eval <javascript>

Evaluates a JavaScript expression specified as an argument to this option. mongo does not load its own environment when evaluating code: as a result many options of the shell environment are not available.

--username <username>, -u <username>

Specifies a username to authenticate to the MongoDB instance. Use in conjunction with the --password option to supply a password. If you specify a username and password but the default database or the specified database do not require authentication, mongo will exit with an exception.

--password <password>, -p <password>

Specifies a password to authenticate to the MongoDB instance. Use in conjunction with the --username option to supply a username. If you specify a --username and do not pass an argument to the --password option, mongo will prompt for a password interactively, if the mongod or mongos requires authentication.

If you chose not to provide an argument so that mongo will prompt for a password, --password must be the last option.

--authenticationDatabase <dbname>

New in version 2.4.

Specifies the database that holds the user’s (e.g --username) credentials.

By default, mongo assumes that the database specified to the --db argument holds the user’s credentials, unless you specify --authenticationDatabase.

See userSource, system.users Privilege Documents and User Privilege Roles in MongoDB for more information about delegated authentication in MongoDB.

--authenticationMechanism <name>

New in version 2.4.

Specifies the authentication mechanism. By default, the authentication mechanism is MONGODB-CR, which is the MongoDB challenge/response authentication mechanism. In MongoDB Enterprise, mongo also includes support for GSSAPI to handle Kerberos authentication.

See Deploy MongoDB with Kerberos Authentication for more information about Kerberos authentication.

--ssl

Enable connection to a mongod or mongos that has SSL encryption.

--sslPEMKeyFile <filename>

New in version 2.4.

Note

The default distribution of MongoDB does not contain support for SSL. To use SSL you can either compile MongoDB with SSL support or use MongoDB Enterprise. See Connect to MongoDB with SSL for more information about SSL and MongoDB.

Specifies the .pem file that contains both the SSL certificate and key. Specify the file name of the .pem file using relative or absolute paths

Required when using the --ssl option if the mongod or mongos has sslCAFile enabled without sslWeakCertificateValidation.

--sslPEMKeyPassword <value>

New in version 2.4.

Note

The default distribution of MongoDB does not contain support for SSL. To use SSL you can either compile MongoDB with SSL support or use MongoDB Enterprise. See Connect to MongoDB with SSL for more information about SSL and MongoDB.

Specifies the password to decrypt the root certificate chain specified by --sslPEMKeyFile.

Only required if the certificate-key file is encrypted.

--sslCAFile <filename>

New in version 2.4.

Note

The default distribution of MongoDB does not contain support for SSL. To use SSL you can either compile MongoDB with SSL support or use MongoDB Enterprise. See Connect to MongoDB with SSL for more information about SSL and MongoDB.

Specifies the .pem file that contains the certificate from the Certificate Authority. Specify the file name of the .pem file using relative or absolute paths

--help, -h

Returns a basic help and usage text.

--version

Returns the version of the shell.

--verbose

Increases the verbosity of the output of the shell during the connection process.

--ipv6

Enables IPv6 support that allows mongo to connect to the MongoDB instance using an IPv6 network. All MongoDB programs and processes, including mongo, disable IPv6 support by default.

<db address>

Specifies the “database address” of the database to connect to. For example:

mongo admin

The above command will connect the mongo shell to the admin database on the local machine. You may specify a remote database instance, with the resolvable hostname or IP address. Separate the database name from the hostname using a / character. See the following examples:

mongo mongodb1.example.net
mongo mongodb1/admin
mongo 10.8.8.10/test
<file.js>

Specifies a JavaScript file to run and then exit. Generally this should be the last option specified.

Optional

To specify a JavaScript file to execute and allow mongo to prompt you for a password using --password, pass the filename as the first parameter with --username and --password s the last options as in the following:

mongo file.js --username username --password

Use the --shell option to return to a shell after the file finishes running.

Files

~/.dbshell

mongo maintains a history of commands in the .dbshell file.

Note

mongo does not recorded interaction related to authentication in the history file, including authenticate and db.addUser().

Warning

Versions of Windows mongo.exe earlier than 2.2.0 will save the .dbshell file in the mongo.exe working directory.

~/.mongorc.js

mongo will read the .mongorc.js file from the home directory of the user invoking mongo. In the file, users can define variables, customize the mongo shell prompt, or update information that they would like updated every time they launch a shell. If you use the shell to evaluate a JavaScript file or expression either on the command line with --eval or by specifying a .js file to mongo, mongo will read the .mongorc.js file after the JavaScript has finished processing.

Specify the --norc option to disable reading .mongorc.js.

/tmp/mongo_edit<time_t>.js
Created by mongo when editing a file. If the file exists, mongo will append an integer from 1 to 10 to the time value to attempt to create a unique file.
%TEMP%mongo_edit<time_t>.js
Created by mongo.exe on Windows when editing a file. If the file exists, mongo will append an integer from 1 to 10 to the time value to attempt to create a unique file.

Environment

EDITOR

Specifies the path to an editor to use with the edit shell command. A JavaScript variable EDITOR will override the value of EDITOR.

HOME

Specifies the path to the home directory where mongo will read the .mongorc.js file and write the .dbshell file.

HOMEDRIVE

On Windows systems, HOMEDRIVE specifies the path the directory where mongo will read the .mongorc.js file and write the .dbshell file.

HOMEPATH

Specifies the Windows path to the home directory where mongo will read the .mongorc.js file and write the .dbshell file.

Keyboard Shortcuts

The mongo shell supports the following keyboard shortcuts: [1]

Keybinding Function
Up arrow Retrieve previous command from history
Down-arrow Retrieve next command from history
Home Go to beginning of the line
End Go to end of the line
Tab Autocomplete method/command
Left-arrow Go backward one character
Right-arrow Go forward one character
Ctrl-left-arrow Go backward one word
Ctrl-right-arrow Go forward one word
Meta-left-arrow Go backward one word
Meta-right-arrow Go forward one word
Ctrl-A Go to the beginning of the line
Ctrl-B Go backward one character
Ctrl-C Exit the mongo shell
Ctrl-D Delete a char (or exit the mongo shell)
Ctrl-E Go to the end of the line
Ctrl-F Go forward one character
Ctrl-G Abort
Ctrl-J Accept/evaluate the line
Ctrl-K Kill/erase the line
Ctrl-L or type cls Clear the screen
Ctrl-M Accept/evaluate the line
Ctrl-N Retrieve next command from history
Ctrl-P Retrieve previous command from history
Ctrl-R Reverse-search command history
Ctrl-S Forward-search command history
Ctrl-T Transpose characters
Ctrl-U Perform Unix line-discard
Ctrl-W Perform Unix word-rubout
Ctrl-Y Yank
Ctrl-Z Suspend (job control works in linux)
Ctrl-H Backward-delete a character
Ctrl-I Complete, same as Tab
Meta-B Go backward one word
Meta-C Capitalize word
Meta-D Kill word
Meta-F Go forward one word
Meta-L Change word to lowercase
Meta-U Change word to uppercase
Meta-Y Yank-pop
Meta-Backspace Backward-kill word
Meta-< Retrieve the first command in command history
Meta-> Retrieve the last command in command history
[1]MongoDB accommodates multiple keybinding. Since 2.0, mongo includes support for basic emacs keybindings.

Use

Typically users invoke the shell with the mongo command at the system prompt. Consider the following examples for other scenarios.

To connect to a database on a remote host using authentication and a non-standard port, use the following form:

mongo --username <user> --password <pass> --host <host> --port 28015

Alternatively, consider the following short form:

mongo -u <user> -p <pass> --host <host> --port 28015

Replace <user>, <pass>, and <host> with the appropriate values for your situation and substitute or omit the --port as needed.

To execute a JavaScript file without evaluating the ~/.mongorc.js file before starting a shell session, use the following form:

mongo --shell --norc alternate-environment.js

To execute a JavaScript file with authentication, with password prompted rather than provided on the command-line, use the following form:

mongo script-file.js -u <user> -p

To print return a query as JSON, from the system prompt using the --eval option, use the following form:

mongo --eval 'db.collection.find().forEach(printjson)'

Use single quotes (e.g. ') to enclose the JavaScript, as well as the additional JavaScript required to generate this output.

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